Home > Uncategorized > Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 83 Notes: Brain Anatomy

Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 83 Notes: Brain Anatomy


For the next few days, we’ll review the functional areas of the brain.


Ho boy.  We’ve got a live one here – a 14 day series on respiratory function. 




The limbic system is the center of emotion.  The thalamus controls the autonomic motor neurons. 

The medulla oblongata; motor tracts down, sensory tracts up.  It controls the CV system, respiration, pH, cough, sneeze, vomiting. 

CO2 + H2O = H2CO3 = H+ + HCO3-

This is respiratory acidosis, an increase in blood acidity.  the key is to increase respiration and to exhale the CO2. 

 A cough is a forced exhalation to clear the throat.  Cough suppressant s inhibit electrical activity in the MO.  Sneezing as well.  Swallowing reflex or deglutition makes sure the stuff goes down the throat, not in the lungs.  Vomiting reflex is a forced expulsion to empty the stomach. 

Antiemetic drugs suppress the vomiting reflex for nausea. 

The MO has the balance center or vestibular center.  Maintains tracking of the eyes, spatial orientation. 

Vestibular reflex center controls skeletal muscles and eye movements to maintain balance. 

Extrapyramidal tract affects somatic motor neurons. 

Occulomotor reflex center controls pupil size.  Superior/inferior/medial/lateral rectus muscles of the eye.  Fluid in the semicircular canals causes hair cells to bend. 

Nostagnes is the eye moving as we rotate in space.  spacial information from proprioceptors.  Vomiting reflex initiated by too much spinning. 

Vertigo is the spinning sensation when at rest.  Motion sickness is cured by drugs slowing down electrical activity.  Nostagnes is the drifting of the eyes in the direction we are spinning in – for tracking. 

The MO is relatively unaffected by general anesthesia. 

The thalamus is the waking center.  Split the brain by a coronal section.  Two masses of grey matter are the thalamus.  All sensory info passes through this.  The thalamus is a secretory for the cerebral cortex. 

Normal waking state, sedated, drowsy, sleep, comatose.

Increased alertness/awareness.  Anxiety, hallucinations. 

Caffience imitates epinephrine. 

The thalamus is the waking center, effected by emotions.  Depression causes the need to sleep, its part of the healing process.  Excitement causes the

One hemisphere is dominant, the other subordinate.  Which hand do you favor?  Left brained when.   True lefties are rare. 

Stereoopnosis is recognizing an object by touching it.  This is how the blind see. 

Wernike’s language comprehension area converts writing/hearing into understanding.  Broca’s speech center is the ability to speak.  Ephasia is losing the ability to speak.  Both are located only in the dominant hemisphere. 

Spacial patterns come from the subordinate hemisphere.  Gestalt is recognizing foreground and background.  Musical abilities.  Body sense/coordination.  Artistic, intuitive thinking. 

Self awareness/metacognition.  We are aware that we are aware. 


Fibrous – sclera, cornea

Sensory – retina

Vascular – choroid, iris, pupil, ciliary body

Kingdoms – monera, protista, fungi, plant, animal

HSbF6 pKa = 25

Electrophiles are positive, nucleophiles are negative

EDTA is a tetraprotic acid.

Activators donate electrons to the ring, deactivators take electrons from the ring

Acetone pKa = 24.2

H3PO4 pKa = 2.15

Cat hearing – 80 Hz to 80 kHz

Categories: Uncategorized
  1. skogfrost
    November 7, 2012 at 11:58 pm

    OMG I buried under classes here but that respiratory course looks so damn enticing.. oh what to do??

    • skogfrost
      November 7, 2012 at 11:59 pm

      .. “I am buried” ..

  2. Ryu
    November 8, 2012 at 1:59 am

    Hey, Skogfrost. I hope you’re doing well.

    I have classes too, but I alot a very special period of time each day for them. In a way, that and physical training is the most important thing I do in a day.

    The class is very interesting and I consider finding it gold. We will see it through. Eventually I hope to find all those hidden med school lecture series which must be out there.

  3. skogfrost
    November 12, 2012 at 3:01 pm

    Four weeks into the coursera class on experimental genomics and I can say it’s brutal and confusing but it is exposing me to things i would not otherwise learn from what I’ve seen so far in online classes. The lecturers, and we’ve had 3 of them so far, clearly are not sure how to teach this class and more often hide behind the slides and give up death by powerpoint. There are transcripts for the classes, which is kind of funny, because they take the ‘um’s’ and ‘uh’s’ out, but leave the ‘and and and and’ sequences, lol. The homework consists of reading journal articles and either summarizing them or giving pros and cons by bulletpoint. The articles are highly technical and dense with jargon and data, most of them being written by a team. Still, it is not so bad because the time is there to distill them. They are peer evaluated, as in by other students, which is causing some fuss, because some students, as far as I can tell from the evaluations I have done, are already very familiar with genomics, and some are completely out of place.

    The first quiz was very difficult, and had a lot of multiple choice with multiple right answers (chose all that apply), so there was a chance of getting a decent grade on the second attempt, but i should never have thought reviewing the transcripts and my side notes would be enough. It would have been smarter to save it, go back and get answers , and return, which I’m sure the more savvy students did. i didn’t, because I wanted to see how much I really knew, and well that’s not the thing i want to find out next time, haha!

    I haven’t given any details on the actual material in here but if you want more , either tell me on here and I’ll send it or tell JDissidence if I am not replying soon enough.

    I have been watching the pulmonary physiology lectures since last night, have downloaded almost all of them, and absolutely love them. That man knows how to teach and does not hide behind the slides like the coursera guys do. I might send them a link to the playlist and tell them to learn something about presentation. Of course i already know a lot more about pulmonology than i do about genomics, so it’s much easier to make connections with what I already know, but still , this gentleman is a gem and when he started by making sure to remind people of the bronchial blood circulation, which is almost always ignored in the physiology classes and even in introductory physiology books, I knew i had to watch it all, even if while doing other things; and also to make myself feel smart again after taking that genomics quiz^^

    If you or anyone here signs up for any more coursera classes, mention it maybe. I’m signed up to take the ‘drugs and the brain’ class that starts in December, as well as a few more next year.

  4. Ryu
    November 12, 2012 at 5:56 pm

    We are in opposite positions then. I would be much better at genomics. It is like a different language.

    He is a great teacher, but my memory of the lungs is scanty, so I’m having to re-learn things as I go. I do appreciate a 14 day series on a single organ. I hope to find similar programs out there for free. I think if I were a doctor I would specialize in the eyes/ear, the skeleton, or perhaps the GIT.

    I will sign up for new coursera courses in mid December.

  5. skogfrost
    November 12, 2012 at 7:24 pm

    A similar series on the GI, with special focus on the enteric nervous system would be awesome. There is very little about that in books, and only partial treatment of it in many GI lectures. Neuro and endocrine are my favorites but there is so much to learn about them it’s overwhelming and other systems are more attractive for short series’ like this one.

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