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Respiratory Physiology Lecture 1


Egad!  We’re going to study respiratory phys for the next two weeks then we’ll come back to Ratfink.  I saw this guy’s lecture series and his bowtie won me over.  Today’s lecture will cost you 42 minutes. 



The lungs have a metabolic role, have a reservoir of blood, and exchange gases.  The blood gas barrier is quite thin, only 0.333 microns in some places. 

The aveolar epithelium is the outer layer.  The inner layer is the capillary endothelium.  Between the two is the ECM or interstitium.  One side of the BGB is thick, one side is thin “polarization”.   Type 4 collagen is responsible for the strength of the BGB. 

Volume of Gas =k  Area/Thickness x Diffusion Constant x Pressure Differential

Diameter = k Solution/ sqrt (MW)

There are 500 million alveoli.  The lung is a symmetrical organ.  Air coming in on one side, blood coming in on the other, the BGB in between them. 

Airway system and the blood system are two partitions that may be made.  A polymer is injected into the lungs postmortum to view these. 

The dead space is about 150 mL large. 

In order, going down:

Trachea, carina/junction, bronchus, bronchi, alveoli

The trachea is the windpipe and is made of cartilaginous rings.  The posterior part is membranous. 

The lung is the only organ where the incoming blood is deoxygenated/blue, and the outgoing blood is oxygenated/red.

The parencenma is where the smooth alveoli are.  Alveolar sacs end in alveoli.  In the walls are capillaries and the BGB. 

The goblet cell discharges mucus/surfactant, which reduces surface tension and makes it easier to breath.  There is a gel layer and a sol layer.  Dust particles are carried out by cilia into the epigolatus.  The clara cells secrete “something” to the mucus lining layer.  Their function is unknown.

Type 1 alveolar cell and the the type 2 alveolar epitheliel cell.  They are quite different. 

Types of Cells Walking Down…

Epithelium – bronchus/columnar – broncheolus/cuboidal – Alveolus/squamous

Alveolar macrophages live in the corner os the alveolus.  Surfactant material has onionskin like appearance.  They clean the alveoli and eat foreign pathogens. 

The unit of gas exchange is  assanous. 

Each Section Has Branching…

trachea 1

Bronchi 2

Broncholiles 4

Terminal Bronchioles 10

respiratory Broncholes 18

Alvolar Ducts  21

alveolar Sacs  23

The pulmonary artery comes in blue, meets the alveoli, then leaves by the pulmonary vein.  Both have thin walls, a ring of smooth muscle. 

There is the pulmonary circulation and takes the cardiac output.  5 Liters/minute is the blood flow.  The bronchial arteries supply the larger airways, this is the second circulation which is much smaller. 


Fibrous – sclera, cornea

Sensory – retina

Vascular – choroid, iris, pupil, ciliary body

Kingdoms – monera, protista, fungi, plant, animal

HSbF6 pKa = 25

Electrophiles are positive, nucleophiles are negative

EDTA is a tetraprotic acid.

Activators donate electrons to the ring, deactivators take electrons from the ring

Acetone pKa = 24.2

H3PO4 pKa = 2.15

Cat hearing – 80 Hz to 80 kHz

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