Home > Uncategorized > Respiratory Physiology Lecture 7 Notes: Pulmonary Gas Exchange

Respiratory Physiology Lecture 7 Notes: Pulmonary Gas Exchange

Overview

Long lecture today at 62 minutes. 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qLroD-Qcg4o&feature=bf_next&list=SPE69608EC343F5691

Details

Very important clinically.  We’ll follow oxygen from the atmosphere to the mitochondria. 

inspired gas is 150 mm Hg.  760 – 47 (water vapor) = 713.  21% of 713 is 150. Normal blood pCO2 is 40. 

The alveolar pO2 is 100 mm Hg.  Loss caused by ventilation and pulmonary blood flow.Ventilation is not continious, but the tidal volume is 0.5 L, going into 3 L. 

Hypoventilation is a lack of breathing. 

Alveolar Ventilation Equation

Va = VCO2/pCO2 x K

All of the expired CO2 comes from the alveolar gas. 

Metabolism can be slowed by cooling a patient.

Alveolar Gas Equation

P alveolar O2 = P inspiration O2 – PaCO2/Respiration + F 

=150 – 40/.08 = 100

=150 – 80/.08 = 50 for Hypoventilation’

100=P iO2 – 80/.8 + F

P iO2 = 200

PiO2 = FiO2 x 713

Causes of Hypoventilation – compression of nerves, spinal injury, poliomyolitis, medulla injury.

Tissue pO2 varies throughout the body.  The pO2 for the actual mitochondria is probably 2-3 mm Hg.  Any interference in the cascade interferes with tissue O2. 

Diffusion can be challenged by diffusion, high altitude, thickened blood gas barrier.

Shunt is blood that has not gone through the diffusion process.   

Thubesian veins are found in the myocardium.  That blood is depletion of O2. 

The Shunt Equation

Q shunt/Q total  = C cO2 – C aO2/C cO2 – C vO2

Shunts do not rise to 100% when 100% pO2 is given. 

The primary function of the lung is gas exchange. 

Review

Atmosphere: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere, exosphere

CTLSC 7 12 554

Sextuple Bond: Mo2, W2

Intermolecular Bonding: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, van der Waals

Hydrogen Bonding: FON Cl

Mandatory Refusal – when communications are lost, no one is trusted.  A breach is assumed. 

Gain Band Width Product = Gain x Bandwidth

CARVER is an acronym that stands for Criticality, Accessibility, Recuperability, Vulnerability, Effect and Recognizability.

Wind Speed Beaufort Category How to Judge the Wind
1-3 mph Light Air Smoke drifts. Wind cannot be felt.
4-7 mph Light Breeze Wind felt on face. Leaves rustle. Weather vanes move.
8-12 mph Gentle Breeze Leaves and twigs in motion. Light flags are extended.
13-18 mph Moderate Breeze Wind raises dust and loose papers. Small branches move. Flags flap.
19-24 mph Fresh Breeze Small trees in leaf sway slightly. Wavelets form on ponds and lakes.
25-31 mph Strong Breeze Large branches move. Telephone lines sing.

Visible Light – 400 to 700 nm

adam boy charles david edward frank george henry ida john kevin lincoln mary nora ocean paul queen robert sam tom union victor william xray young zebra
bull spread buy near, sell far
bear spread sell near, buy farcash – futures = basis

spreads are differences between futures contract months
cashpostive carry
cash>futures negative carry (inverted)
Basis: time space quality

Aromatic: planar, cyclic, Huckels Rule – 4n+2 electrons

Fibrous – sclera, cornea

Sensory – retina

Vascular – choroid, iris, pupil, ciliary body

Kingdoms – monera, protista, fungi, plant, animal

HSbF6 pKa = 25

Electrophiles are positive, nucleophiles are negative

EDTA is a tetraprotic acid.

Tissue: nervous muscular epithelial connective

Epithelial: simple stratified pseudostratifed/ cuboidal columnar squamous

I. The output attempts to do whatever is necessary to make the voltage difference between the inputs zero.II. The inputs draw no current

Adrenal cortex (outer layer)

glucocorticoids – cortisol

mineralcorticoids – NaCl

androgens

Adrenal Medulla – epinepherine

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