Home > Uncategorized > Respiratory Physiology Lecture 9 Notes: Breathing 1

Respiratory Physiology Lecture 9 Notes: Breathing 1


Today is a 47 minute lecture on the mechanics of breathing. 



Inspiration is active, expiration is normally passive. 

The diaphragm is the most important breathing muscle.  The phrenic nerve innervates the diaphragm. 

The abdominals are for forced expiration.    The internal intercostals also help, moving the rips down. 

The lung pressure-volume curve is nonlinear and exhibits hysteresis. 

Compliance = dV/dP = 200 mL/cm H2o

Disease alters the compliance.  Specific compliance is the compliance/lung volume. 

There is collagen in the lung.  Elastin is also about.  Nylon stocking elasticity is due to changes in geometry. 

Surface tension is forces in the surface of a liquid.  Force in an imaginary line 1 cm in the surface.  It’s like a think rubber sheet with a cut in it.  Suture it, the force on the sutures is the ST in dynes. 

The lung is not unstable.  Inflating the lung is easier with liquid than with air.  Stable bubbles have low surface tensions.  Surfactants reduce the surface tension of the alveolar layer. 

Pressure Soap Bubble = 4 Thickness/radius

Surfactant reduces the surface tension of the lungs. 

DPPC is a surfactant and a phospholipid in the lung.  Surfactant increases the compliance, stability and reduces the tendency for alveolar edema.  Surfactant has an onion skin like appearance. 

There are regional differences in ventilation at resting volume. 

Fibrosis leads to reduced compliance.



cash-futures = basis

+ basis negative carry

– basis positive carry

4 carbons overwhelm hydrogen bonding

Atmosphere: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere, exosphere

CTLSC 7 12 554

Sextuple Bond: Mo2, W2

Intermolecular Bonding: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, van der Waals

Hydrogen Bonding: FON Cl

Mandatory Refusal – when communications are lost, no one is trusted. A breach is assumed.

Gain Band Width Product = Gain x Bandwidth

CARVER is an acronym that stands for Criticality, Accessibility, Recuperability, Vulnerability, Effect and Recognizability.

Wind Speed Beaufort Category How to Judge the Wind
1-3 mph Light Air Smoke drifts. Wind cannot be felt.
4-7 mph Light Breeze Wind felt on face. Leaves rustle. Weather vanes move.
8-12 mph Gentle Breeze Leaves and twigs in motion. Light flags are extended.
13-18 mph Moderate Breeze Wind raises dust and loose papers. Small branches move. Flags flap.
19-24 mph Fresh Breeze Small trees in leaf sway slightly. Wavelets form on ponds and lakes.
25-31 mph Strong Breeze Large branches move. Telephone lines sing.

Visible Light – 400 to 700 nm

adam boy charles david edward frank george henry ida john kevin lincoln mary nora ocean paul queen robert sam tom union victor william xray young zebra
bull spread buy near, sell far
bear spread sell near, buy farcash – futures = basis

spreads are differences between futures contract months
cashpostive carry
cash>futures negative carry (inverted)
Basis: time space quality

Aromatic: planar, cyclic, Huckels Rule – 4n+2 electrons

Fibrous – sclera, cornea

Sensory – retina

Vascular – choroid, iris, pupil, ciliary body

Kingdoms – monera, protista, fungi, plant, animal

HSbF6 pKa = 25

Electrophiles are positive, nucleophiles are negative

EDTA is a tetraprotic acid.

Tissue: nervous muscular epithelial connective

Epithelial: simple stratified pseudostratifed/ cuboidal columnar squamous

I. The output attempts to do whatever is necessary to make the voltage difference between the inputs zero.II. The inputs draw no current

Adrenal cortex (outer layer)

glucocorticoids – cortisol

mineralcorticoids – NaCl


Adrenal Medulla – epinepherine

Intermolecular forces: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, vdW

Bonds: Ionic >1.9, polar covalent, covalent <0.4

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