Home > Uncategorized > Respiratory Physiology Lecture 10 Notes: Breathing 2

Respiratory Physiology Lecture 10 Notes: Breathing 2


Today is part two on breathing, clocking in at 55 minutes.  This is a great lecture, and there is some physics/fluid dynamics here. 



Begin with gas moving through a tube. 

Flow Patterns:

In a laminar tube, the flow is parallel to the tube. 

Increase the flow rate more, eddies at branch points for transitional

Turbulent is full of eddies.  Increase the flow even more.

Flow = change of pressure x pi x radius ^4/ 8 viscosity length

Resistance = dP/Flow

Resistance = 8 vL/pi r^4

Half the tube, 16x the resistance. 

The flow rate in the center of the tube is twice that of the sides. (laminar flow).

Re = 2 Radius Velocity Density / viscosity

Re > 2000 Turbulent

Lungs are very complex.  Most flows are transitional.  In the trachea, flow is turbulent. 

No pressure difference, no flow.  Alveolar pressure falls then rises during inspiration through expiration. 

Airway resistance is determined by:

The number of airways increases rapidly increases with each generation, so the smallest airway is not the most resistant.  Terminal bronchial – there are 50K.  They are in parallel.

Airways undergo dichotomous branching.  Up to about 15 generations. 

Resistance is shared by a large number of airways.  Resistance peaks at 5 generations.  From high to peak then falling to almost nothing. 

Lung resistance decreases as lung volume increases.  Lung conductance increases as the lungs increase in size.

Flow peaks quickly then falls off as volume increases. Total lung capacity TLC to RV residual volume.

Flow rate is independent of effort. 

Work of Breathing

Work =  Pressure x Volume

Volume above FRC versus intrapleural pressure

The oxygen cost of breathing is quite low.   


R-N=N-R Azo

Ambush – linear, L, V

C=S Thioketone

H2N(C=O)NH2 Urea

cash-futures = basis

+ basis negative carry

– basis positive carry

4 carbons overwhelm hydrogen bonding

Atmosphere: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere, exosphere

CTLSC 7 12 554

Sextuple Bond: Mo2, W2

Intermolecular Bonding: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, van der Waals

Hydrogen Bonding: FON Cl

Mandatory Refusal – when communications are lost, no one is trusted. A breach is assumed.

Gain Band Width Product = Gain x Bandwidth

CARVER is an acronym that stands for Criticality, Accessibility, Recuperability, Vulnerability, Effect and Recognizability.

Wind Speed Beaufort Category How to Judge the Wind
1-3 mph Light Air Smoke drifts. Wind cannot be felt.
4-7 mph Light Breeze Wind felt on face. Leaves rustle. Weather vanes move.
8-12 mph Gentle Breeze Leaves and twigs in motion. Light flags are extended.
13-18 mph Moderate Breeze Wind raises dust and loose papers. Small branches move. Flags flap.
19-24 mph Fresh Breeze Small trees in leaf sway slightly. Wavelets form on ponds and lakes.
25-31 mph Strong Breeze Large branches move. Telephone lines sing.

Visible Light – 400 to 700 nm

adam boy charles david edward frank george henry ida john kevin lincoln mary nora ocean paul queen robert sam tom union victor william xray young zebra
bull spread buy near, sell far
bear spread sell near, buy farcash – futures = basis

spreads are differences between futures contract months
cashpostive carry
cash>futures negative carry (inverted)
Basis: time space quality

Aromatic: planar, cyclic, Huckels Rule – 4n+2 electrons

Fibrous – sclera, cornea

Sensory – retina

Vascular – choroid, iris, pupil, ciliary body

Kingdoms – monera, protista, fungi, plant, animal

HSbF6 pKa = 25

Electrophiles are positive, nucleophiles are negative

EDTA is a tetraprotic acid.

Tissue: nervous muscular epithelial connective

Epithelial: simple stratified pseudostratifed/ cuboidal columnar squamous

I. The output attempts to do whatever is necessary to make the voltage difference between the inputs zero.II. The inputs draw no current

Adrenal cortex (outer layer)

glucocorticoids – cortisol

mineralcorticoids – NaCl


Adrenal Medulla – epinepherine

Intermolecular forces: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, vdW

Bonds: Ionic >1.9, polar covalent, covalent <0.4

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