Home > respiratory physiology > Respiratory Physiology Lecture 12 Notes: Defense Systems

Respiratory Physiology Lecture 12 Notes: Defense Systems


Today, we’ll learn about the lung’s defense systems. 



Atmospheric Pollutants

CO, SOx, NOx, CH, particulates.  When oxides combine with water vapor, acid is formed.  The most abundand pollutant is CO and the most common source is transportation. 

For temperature inversions, cold air is held down.  Especially occurs in low lying areas. 

Cigarette smoking is the most important pollutant.  Tars cause bronchial carcinoma.  CO can tie up to 10% hemoglobin.  Chronic bronchitic, emphaseye, heart disease. 

Lung and broncho cancer skyrocketed from 1930 to 2004 in males.  Inhaling cigarette smoke causes a very dramatic effect for about an hour.

An aerosol is a cloud of small suspended particles. 


Impaction for large particles.  Nasopharynx.  The corner from the mouth to the throat.  The particles run into the opposite wall. 

Sedimentation for medium particles.  Small airways.  Settling out by gravity.  Coal miner’s lung. 

Diffusions for small particles. Alveoli.

Particle Cleansing

Mucociliary System – mainly in the airways.  Particles moved up, tipped into GIT at epiglottis.  Mucus is propelled by cilia. 

Chronic bronchitis greatly hypertrophies mucus cells.  Usually caused by smoking.  The body is trying to remove particles, airway resistance increases. 

There is a gel layer, cilia touch the bottom of the gel layer, and the sol layer beneath.

Cilium is made of many microtubules.  A series of 9 doublets on the perimeter, one doublet in the center.  Whip-like motion.

Impairment of Ciliary Function

Too much mucus, CF, asthma, change in mucus composition.  Paralysis of cilia by toxic gases.  Bronchial epithelium destroyed. 

Alveoloar Macrophages

An ameoboid like cell.  Eats any cell that shouldn’t be there. 

Can be affected by inhaled gases like O3, cigarette smoke.  Levage material is what is washed out after flushing the lungs.  Toxic particles like silica.  ALveolar hypoxia, radiation, corticosteroids, alcohol ingestion.


Barchan Dune 35 degrees down, 15 up

R-N=N-R Azo

Ambush – linear, L, V

C=S Thioketone

H2N(C=O)NH2 Urea

cash-futures = basis

+ basis negative carry

– basis positive carry

4 carbons overwhelm hydrogen bonding

Atmosphere: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere, exosphere

CTLSC 7 12 554

Sextuple Bond: Mo2, W2

Intermolecular Bonding: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, van der Waals

Hydrogen Bonding: FON Cl

Mandatory Refusal – when communications are lost, no one is trusted. A breach is assumed.

Gain Band Width Product = Gain x Bandwidth

CARVER is an acronym that stands for Criticality, Accessibility, Recuperability, Vulnerability, Effect and Recognizability.

Wind Speed Beaufort Category How to Judge the Wind
1-3 mph Light Air Smoke drifts. Wind cannot be felt.
4-7 mph Light Breeze Wind felt on face. Leaves rustle. Weather vanes move.
8-12 mph Gentle Breeze Leaves and twigs in motion. Light flags are extended.
13-18 mph Moderate Breeze Wind raises dust and loose papers. Small branches move. Flags flap.
19-24 mph Fresh Breeze Small trees in leaf sway slightly. Wavelets form on ponds and lakes.
25-31 mph Strong Breeze Large branches move. Telephone lines sing.

Visible Light – 400 to 700 nm

adam boy charles david edward frank george henry ida john kevin lincoln mary nora ocean paul queen robert sam tom union victor william xray young zebra
bull spread buy near, sell far
bear spread sell near, buy farcash – futures = basis

spreads are differences between futures contract months
cashpostive carry
cash>futures negative carry (inverted)
Basis: time space quality

Aromatic: planar, cyclic, Huckels Rule – 4n+2 electrons

Fibrous – sclera, cornea

Sensory – retina

Vascular – choroid, iris, pupil, ciliary body

Kingdoms – monera, protista, fungi, plant, animal

HSbF6 pKa = 25

Electrophiles are positive, nucleophiles are negative

EDTA is a tetraprotic acid.

C-C=O-C Ketone

Ketones containing alkene and alkyne units are often called unsaturated ketones.

Ph2CO Benzophenone

Sunflower 8 benzenes fused together

(H3C)(CO)(CO)(CH3) Diacetyl

Butanone MEK

Acetoin (H3C)(CO)(COH)CH3

Tissue: nervous muscular epithelial connective

Epithelial: simple stratified pseudostratifed/ cuboidal columnar squamous

I. The output attempts to do whatever is necessary to make the voltage difference between the inputs zero.II. The inputs draw no current

Adrenal cortex (outer layer)

glucocorticoids – cortisol

mineralcorticoids – NaCl


Adrenal Medulla – epinepherine

Intermolecular forces: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, vdW

Bonds: Ionic >1.9, polar covalent, covalent <0.4

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