Home > Uncategorized > Respiratory Physiology Lecture 13 Notes: Lungs and Exercise

Respiratory Physiology Lecture 13 Notes: Lungs and Exercise

Overview

Today, we will spend 56 minutes on the lungs during stress.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SNG1_MULdd4&feature=BFa&list=SPE69608EC343F5691

Details

The lung is the largest surface areas to the environment, being 75 square meters.  The human skin is only 2 square meters.

4 Factors: exercise, high altitude, diving

Exercise

O2 consumption rises dramatically with work rate.  PO2 max is when the curve levels off.  After that, anaerobic glycolysis.  Ventilation rises linearly with O2 consumption.  The anaerobic threshold increases or decreases with demand.  The later it occurs, the better. 

VO2 = Q(CaO2 – CvO2)

Pressures rise, capillaries distend, vascular resistence falls, shifting of the O2 dissociation curve, capillaries open up.

High Altitude

The barometric pressure decreases with altitude.  760 down to 200 mm Hg at Mt. Everest.  Highest human habitation is at 400 mm Hg. 

Hypoxia causes adaption; hyperventilation. 

Inspired pO2 = 43 mm Hg

pAO2 = 43-40/0.8 = -7

Increase ventilation, reduce pCO2 to 8

pAo2 = 43-8/0.8 = 33

Polycythemia also occurs.  At 4600 m altitude, from 15 to 19.8 hemoglobin concentration, O2 saturation is 81%, O2 concentration at 22.4 ml/dl.  Increases the viscosity of the blood.  

acclimatization

sifts of the O2 dissociation curve, increase in capillary concentration, changes in oxidative enzymes in cells

Diving

Decompression sickness has to do with IGL.  10 meters of descent leads to 1 atm of pressure.  Nitrogen is dissolved in the tissues, especially fat.  Then it comes out of solution, forms bubbles that can obstruct blood flow. 

Use helium oxygen for breathing, saturation diving, inert gas narcosis, CNS toxicity by high pressure O2, pulmonary O2 toxicity, hyperbaric O2 therapy.

Space Flight

Gravitational effects on the lung.  Apex has low blood flow. 

Microgravity is zero gravity conditions.  The university did a study of pulmonary function in microgravity.  Increased pulmonary capillary blood volume, increases stroke volume, increased cardiac output.  Change in residual volume. 

After 6 months on the ISS, lung function returned to preflight conditions. 

Review

Barchan Dune 35 degrees down, 15 up

R-N=N-R Azo

Ambush – linear, L, V

C=S Thioketone

H2N(C=O)NH2 Urea

cash-futures = basis

+ basis negative carry

– basis positive carry

4 carbons overwhelm hydrogen bonding

Atmosphere: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere, exosphere

CTLSC 7 12 554

Sextuple Bond: Mo2, W2

Intermolecular Bonding: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, van der Waals

Hydrogen Bonding: FON Cl

Mandatory Refusal – when communications are lost, no one is trusted. A breach is assumed.

Gain Band Width Product = Gain x Bandwidth

CARVER is an acronym that stands for Criticality, Accessibility, Recuperability, Vulnerability, Effect and Recognizability.

Wind Speed Beaufort Category How to Judge the Wind
1-3 mph Light Air Smoke drifts. Wind cannot be felt.
4-7 mph Light Breeze Wind felt on face. Leaves rustle. Weather vanes move.
8-12 mph Gentle Breeze Leaves and twigs in motion. Light flags are extended.
13-18 mph Moderate Breeze Wind raises dust and loose papers. Small branches move. Flags flap.
19-24 mph Fresh Breeze Small trees in leaf sway slightly. Wavelets form on ponds and lakes.
25-31 mph Strong Breeze Large branches move. Telephone lines sing.

Visible Light – 400 to 700 nm

adam boy charles david edward frank george henry ida john kevin lincoln mary nora ocean paul queen robert sam tom union victor william xray young zebra
bull spread buy near, sell far
bear spread sell near, buy farcash – futures = basis

spreads are differences between futures contract months
cashpostive carry
cash>futures negative carry (inverted)
Basis: time space quality

Aromatic: planar, cyclic, Huckels Rule – 4n+2 electrons

Fibrous – sclera, cornea

Sensory – retina

Vascular – choroid, iris, pupil, ciliary body

Kingdoms – monera, protista, fungi, plant, animal

HSbF6 pKa = 25

Electrophiles are positive, nucleophiles are negative

EDTA is a tetraprotic acid.

C-C=O-C Ketone

Ketones containing alkene and alkyne units are often called unsaturated ketones.

Ph2CO Benzophenone

Sunflower 8 benzenes fused together

(H3C)(CO)(CO)(CH3) Diacetyl

Butanone MEK

Acetoin (H3C)(CO)(COH)CH3

Tissue: nervous muscular epithelial connective

Epithelial: simple stratified pseudostratifed/ cuboidal columnar squamous

I. The output attempts to do whatever is necessary to make the voltage difference between the inputs zero.II. The inputs draw no current

Adrenal cortex (outer layer)

glucocorticoids – cortisol

mineralcorticoids – NaCl

androgens

Adrenal Medulla – epinepherine

Intermolecular forces: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, vdW

Bonds: Ionic >1.9, polar covalent, covalent <0.4

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