Home > Uncategorized > Respiratory Physiology Lecture 14 Notes: Mount Everest

Respiratory Physiology Lecture 14 Notes: Mount Everest


Interesting talk today about the teacher’s trip to Mount Everest in 1981. 


The teacher here, John B West, has another few talks on pulmonary pathophysiology. 



The partial pressure of O2 is right at the limit of human tolerance for hypoxia.  The peak wasn’t climbed until 1953.  All the oxygen is used for basal metabolism.

Everest is in eastern Nepal.  The expedition was in 1981. 

The most important thing to summit the mountain is luck. 

8848 meters is the height.  Camps are spaced 1 day’s trek apart.  Camp 2 is the laboratory.  Camp 5 is the last one.  The icefall lead to camp 1. 

Ladders are placed over crevices.    Most expeditions don’t reach the summit.  Hyperventiliation was absolutely necessary. 

They measured the response.  There was a large range of response.  You’re born with it.  The earlier the response, the better the response to altitude. 

Headaches, nausea, vomiting are altitude sickness symptoms.  The CNS doesn’t tolerate O2 deprivation.  Short term memory and manipulative skill was altered after even 12 months. 

An increase of ventilation of 5X. 

Alveolar Ventilation Equation is used,

pH = pK + log base/acid

altitude PRessure Inspired pO2 ApO2 art pO2/pCO2/pH

(Summit 8848)  253 43 35 28 7.5 7.7

Sea Level 760 149 100 95 40 7.40

Dr Chris Pizzo reached the summit. 

Climbers on the summit are close to the limit of survival because of severe hypoxia.

Barometric pressure is 253 mm HG, 1/3 of sea level.

The most important acclimatization is extreme hyperventilation, driving pCO2 to 7 mm Hg. 


Acetyl COCH3

Thionyl chloride SOCl2

Barchan Dune 35 degrees down, 15 up

R-N=N-R Azo

Ambush – linear, L, V

C=S Thioketone

H2N(C=O)NH2 Urea

cash-futures = basis

+ basis negative carry

– basis positive carry

4 carbons overwhelm hydrogen bonding

Atmosphere: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere, exosphere

CTLSC 7 12 554

Sextuple Bond: Mo2, W2

Intermolecular Bonding: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, van der Waals

Hydrogen Bonding: FON Cl

Mandatory Refusal – when communications are lost, no one is trusted. A breach is assumed.

Gain Band Width Product = Gain x Bandwidth

CARVER is an acronym that stands for Criticality, Accessibility, Recuperability, Vulnerability, Effect and Recognizability.

Wind Speed Beaufort Category How to Judge the Wind
1-3 mph Light Air Smoke drifts. Wind cannot be felt.
4-7 mph Light Breeze Wind felt on face. Leaves rustle. Weather vanes move.
8-12 mph Gentle Breeze Leaves and twigs in motion. Light flags are extended.
13-18 mph Moderate Breeze Wind raises dust and loose papers. Small branches move. Flags flap.
19-24 mph Fresh Breeze Small trees in leaf sway slightly. Wavelets form on ponds and lakes.
25-31 mph Strong Breeze Large branches move. Telephone lines sing.

Visible Light – 400 to 700 nm

adam boy charles david edward frank george henry ida john kevin lincoln mary nora ocean paul queen robert sam tom union victor william xray young zebra
bull spread buy near, sell far
bear spread sell near, buy farcash – futures = basis

spreads are differences between futures contract months
cashpostive carry
cash>futures negative carry (inverted)
Basis: time space quality

Aromatic: planar, cyclic, Huckels Rule – 4n+2 electrons

Fibrous – sclera, cornea

Sensory – retina

Vascular – choroid, iris, pupil, ciliary body

Kingdoms – monera, protista, fungi, plant, animal

HSbF6 pKa = 25

Electrophiles are positive, nucleophiles are negative

EDTA is a tetraprotic acid.

C-C=O-C Ketone

Ketones containing alkene and alkyne units are often called unsaturated ketones.

Ph2CO Benzophenone

Sunflower 8 benzenes fused together

(H3C)(CO)(CO)(CH3) Diacetyl

Butanone MEK

Acetoin (H3C)(CO)(COH)CH3

Tissue: nervous muscular epithelial connective

Epithelial: simple stratified pseudostratifed/ cuboidal columnar squamous

I. The output attempts to do whatever is necessary to make the voltage difference between the inputs zero.II. The inputs draw no current

Adrenal cortex (outer layer)

glucocorticoids – cortisol

mineralcorticoids – NaCl


Adrenal Medulla – epinepherine

Intermolecular forces: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, vdW

Bonds: Ionic >1.9, polar covalent, covalent <0.4

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