Home > Uncategorized > University of Hawaii 4.3: Immunology

University of Hawaii 4.3: Immunology

Overview

Today they move on to immunology, so we do too.  Costs 66 minutes. 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IDZwpsN0_yA&feature=relmfu

Details

There are three important areas: immunology, hematology, and micro. 

Epidemiology is the study of the causes, distribution and control of diseases in populations. 

Before 1979, smallpox killed 80% of infected children.  It was eradicated in 1979. 

Locks and keys.  Y shaped things are antibodies made by lymphocytes.  The top binds to antigen, the bottom binds to the immune component.  The top has two locks, antigen is the key. 

Ag is antigen is any protein that can stimulate an immune reaction.

Ab is an antibody is a y shaped protein that bind to antigens to mark them for phagocytosis.  B lymphocytes make antibodies.  Antibodies can be free in the blood.  At/Ab complexes signal macrophage consumption.

Ag to lympocyte to make more of the same antibody. 

Immunity: The body has a huge increase in the number of receptors that can activate the immune system in case of exposure to specific bacteria/viruses. 

Blood carries O2, Co2, nutrients, wastes, coagulate, combat infections. 

Blood is made of serum, the liquid base.  Mostly salt water, we bring the ocean with us.  Serum has antibodies and complement.  Complement is made by the liver, proteins that attach to viruses and bacteria for phagocytosis.  Complements are not specific. 

Blood: Plasma, RBCs, WBCs, platelets. Erthyrocytes, leukocytes, thromobcytes.    All made by the marrow. In the fetus, the liver helps. 

Clotting factors are made in the liver. 

Plasma = serum + clotting factors

Peripheral smears show blood cells.  A drop of blood on the microscope. 

Granular

Neutrophils – poly morpho nuclear leukocytes PMN

segmented neturophils SEGs, granulocytes

Eosinophils – “likes red”.

Basophils – basic, “likes purple”. 

The granules carry poisons that kill infectious organisms.  Neutropenia, too few neutrophils, leads to easy infection. 

Agranular

Monocytes –

Lymphocytes –

The stem cell leads to two lines:

The myeloid line – RBCs, granulocytes, monocytes, platelets

The lympoid line – lymphocytes

The lymphoid line-Stem cell-lymphoblast-prolymphocyte-T/B lympocytes/killer cells

The myeloid line – stem cells-megakaryoblast/myeleoblast/proethryoblast

Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor. Filgastim.  GCSF.  Neupogen.

GMSCF is granulocyte macrophage.

Myeloblast-promyelocyte-myelocyte-metamyelocyte-band-neutrophil

Erythropeotin is made by the kidneys to stimulate RBC production.  Epogen is one such drug. 

Immunity is the ability to remember foreign substances.  When the virus enters the cell, antigens appear on the outside of the cell. 

Cellular immunity and humoral immunity, for the liquid part of blood or floating antibodies. 

CI 

major histo compatibility complex is how immune cells ID self from foreign tissues. 

Interleukin = inter (between)leuko cyto (cell) kine (communication)

IL1 is how the macrophage calls for help – CH4/T helper cells attracted.  Secretes IL2 eventually.

Interferons interfere with viral ability to replicate DNA/RNA. 

Humoral Immunity:  Based on T helper cells calling other cells.  Relies on antibodies in the bloodstream.  2 sets of light chains, lambda and kappa.  Heavy chains.  The top is for antigen binding, bottom for immune binding. 

The primary response is small, subsequent exposure to antigen, secondary response is huge. 

IgM is 5 immunoglobulins or antidbodies.  Initial reaction.  Primary antibody. 

IgG is the chronic Ig.  Secondary memory antibody.  Single Ig. 

Antibodies can be used as drugs. 

IgD is a B lymophocyte coated with antigens. 

IgA is two Igs back to back.  Tears, saliva.

IgE is a single Ig on a mast cell. 

T lymphocytes are helper CD4s, cytotoxic CD8, and suppressor cells. 

B lymphocytes become plasma cells or memory cells. 

 Review

mEq = AW / (V x 1000)

horizonata/vertical/diagonal spread

30 households per man per hour, 100 men, 1000 houses, 3 hours

pH = pK + log base/acid

  • Stay relaxed
  • Weapon moves first
  • Accelerate the weapon
  • Move towards the target
  • Penetrate

Acetyl COCH3

Thionyl chloride SOCl2

Barchan Dune 35 degrees down, 15 up

R-N=N-R Azo

Ambush – linear, L, V

C=S Thioketone

H2N(C=O)NH2 Urea

cash-futures = basis

+ basis negative carry

– basis positive carry

4 carbons overwhelm hydrogen bonding

Atmosphere: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere, exosphere

CTLSC 7 12 554

Sextuple Bond: Mo2, W2

Intermolecular Bonding: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, van der Waals

Hydrogen Bonding: FON Cl

Mandatory Refusal – when communications are lost, no one is trusted. A breach is assumed.

Gain Band Width Product = Gain x Bandwidth

CARVER is an acronym that stands for Criticality, Accessibility, Recuperability, Vulnerability, Effect and Recognizability.

Wind Speed Beaufort Category How to Judge the Wind
1-3 mph Light Air Smoke drifts. Wind cannot be felt.
4-7 mph Light Breeze Wind felt on face. Leaves rustle. Weather vanes move.
8-12 mph Gentle Breeze Leaves and twigs in motion. Light flags are extended.
13-18 mph Moderate Breeze Wind raises dust and loose papers. Small branches move. Flags flap.
19-24 mph Fresh Breeze Small trees in leaf sway slightly. Wavelets form on ponds and lakes.
25-31 mph Strong Breeze Large branches move. Telephone lines sing.

Visible Light – 400 to 700 nm

adam boy charles david edward frank george henry ida john kevin lincoln mary nora ocean paul queen robert sam tom union victor william xray young zebra
bull spread buy near, sell far
bear spread sell near, buy farcash – futures = basis

spreads are differences between futures contract months
cashpostive carry
cash>futures negative carry (inverted)
Basis: time space quality

Aromatic: planar, cyclic, Huckels Rule – 4n+2 electrons

Fibrous – sclera, cornea

Sensory – retina

Vascular – choroid, iris, pupil, ciliary body

Kingdoms – monera, protista, fungi, plant, animal

HSbF6 pKa = 25

Electrophiles are positive, nucleophiles are negative

EDTA is a tetraprotic acid.

C-C=O-C Ketone

Ketones containing alkene and alkyne units are often called unsaturated ketones.

Ph2CO Benzophenone

Sunflower 8 benzenes fused together

(H3C)(CO)(CO)(CH3) Diacetyl

Butanone MEK

Acetoin (H3C)(CO)(COH)CH3

Tissue: nervous muscular epithelial connective

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