Home > Uncategorized > University of Hawaii 4.4: AIDS/HIV

University of Hawaii 4.4: AIDS/HIV

Overview

Today we’ll learn about AIDs and HIV for about 60 minutes. 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nGr9kuu2NrY

Details

HIV is the retrovirus that causes AIDs.  Reverse transcriptase makes DNA from RNA.

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome = AIDS 

Commonly flu-like illness 2-5 weeks after HIV infection. 

Seroconversion syndrome is the primary HIV infection: fever, headache, sore throat, rash. 

HIV destroys immunity.  Multiplies in lymph nodes and destroys CD4/T helper cells.  CD is cluster differential.  One might be symptom free up to ten years after infection. 

AIDs = presence of HIV infection by a positive HIV-antibody test + opportunistic infection/CD4 count of 200 or less/

HIV transferred to man from monkeys in the 30s.  Entered Haiti in 1966.  Enters US in 1970.  AIDS detected in CA and NY in homos and drug users.  In 1983, only 3000 patients in the US. 

72% of people in developing countries need treatment and don’t get it. 

CCR5 receptor for HIV resistance.  HIV cannot reproduce on its own. 

Inside the capside are two copies of the viral RNA. 

Capsid:

protease – protein modifier

integrase – viral DNA with human DNA

reverse transcriptase – rival RNA into viral DNA

Icosahedron shape allows for spontaneous assembly of components. 

Anti HIV medications:

NRTI nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor

NNRI non-NRTI

Protesase inhibotors

Fusion inhibitors

Integrase inhibitors

HAART Highly Actice Anti Retroviral Therapy

2NRTIs, 1 PI or 1 NNRTI

Ritonavir is a PI that interferes with the breakdown of other PIE, boosting the efficacy of the other PIs.  

Decisions:

Virus Genotype

Toxicity

Previous Failures

Compliance = some drugs will increase viral resistance if compliance is imperfect

Pregnancy

Monotherapy leads to virus resistance and treatment failure. 

Lipodystrophy syndrome is facial wasting, abnormal fat distribution.  Protruberant abdomen, buffalo hump on the neck.  Egrifta or tasamorelin can treat these fat deposits. 

Tests:

HIV antibody presence, plasma HIV RNA, CD4 count, GT/PT

HIV RNA levels are the “viral load.”  These were the first tests available.   

HIV virus has a phospholipid bilayer.  Attachment spikes on the envelope. 

Review

mEq = AW / (V x 1000)

horizontal/vertical/diagonal spread

30 households per man per hour, 100 men, 1000 houses, 3 hours

pH = pK + log base/acid

  • Stay relaxed
  • Weapon moves first
  • Accelerate the weapon
  • Move towards the target
  • Penetrate

Acetyl COCH3

Thionyl chloride SOCl2

Barchan Dune 35 degrees down, 15 up

R-N=N-R Azo

Ambush – linear, L, V

C=S Thioketone

H2N(C=O)NH2 Urea

cash-futures = basis

+ basis negative carry

– basis positive carry

4 carbons overwhelm hydrogen bonding

Atmosphere: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere, exosphere

CTLSC 7 12 554

Sextuple Bond: Mo2, W2

Intermolecular Bonding: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, van der Waals

Hydrogen Bonding: FON Cl

Mandatory Refusal – when communications are lost, no one is trusted. A breach is assumed.

Gain Band Width Product = Gain x Bandwidth

CARVER is an acronym that stands for Criticality, Accessibility, Recuperability, Vulnerability, Effect and Recognizability.

Wind Speed Beaufort Category How to Judge the Wind
1-3 mph Light Air Smoke drifts. Wind cannot be felt.
4-7 mph Light Breeze Wind felt on face. Leaves rustle. Weather vanes move.
8-12 mph Gentle Breeze Leaves and twigs in motion. Light flags are extended.
13-18 mph Moderate Breeze Wind raises dust and loose papers. Small branches move. Flags flap.
19-24 mph Fresh Breeze Small trees in leaf sway slightly. Wavelets form on ponds and lakes.
25-31 mph Strong Breeze Large branches move. Telephone lines sing.

Visible Light – 400 to 700 nm

adam boy charles david edward frank george henry ida john kevin lincoln mary nora ocean paul queen robert sam tom union victor william xray young zebra
bull spread buy near, sell far
bear spread sell near, buy farcash – futures = basis

spreads are differences between futures contract months
cashpostive carry
cash>futures negative carry (inverted)
Basis: time space quality

Aromatic: planar, cyclic, Huckels Rule – 4n+2 electrons

Fibrous – sclera, cornea

Sensory – retina

Vascular – choroid, iris, pupil, ciliary body

Kingdoms – monera, protista, fungi, plant, animal

HSbF6 pKa = 25

Electrophiles are positive, nucleophiles are negative

EDTA is a tetraprotic acid.

C-C=O-C Ketone

Ketones containing alkene and alkyne units are often called unsaturated ketones.

Ph2CO Benzophenone

Sunflower 8 benzenes fused together

(H3C)(CO)(CO)(CH3) Diacetyl

Butanone MEK

Acetoin (H3C)(CO)(COH)CH3

Tissue: nervous muscular epithelial connective

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