Home > Uncategorized > University of Hawaii: Microbial Agents 5.1

University of Hawaii: Microbial Agents 5.1

Overview

This is a long lecture at 74 minutes.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3EAUlIGy8QE

Details

Antibiotics – bacteria, antifungal for fungi, antihelmiths for worms. 

Systemic infection involes the entire body.  Localized is only the skin, eyes, ears. 

Coccus – cocci  – spherical shaped

Bacillus – bacilli – rod shaped

Gram + – puple on Gram stain

Gram – = red on Gram stain

Cell wall characteristics.

bacteriostatic prevents reproduction, bacteriolytic causes bacteria death.  Killing bacteria can sometimes release the toxins they hold.  Stop their reproduction, let the immune system kill the infection.

Proper sanitation and clean water have done more to combat infectious disease than anything.

Sulfonamides were the first antimicrobials.  1932 by Bayer.  Protonsil only exerted its effect in live animals. Stoped folate synthesis.  Folate is necessary to make NAs.  Prevents mitosis.  Folate is not synthesized in mammalian cells, need to get from the diet. 

R-(O=S=O)-NH2 is a sulfonamide

Cause allergies in 5% of people.  Leading cause of  induced Stevens Johnson Syndrome, peeling of the skins, lips and mouth. 

Polyketides are metabolites from bacteria, fungi, plants, or animals.  Bacteria live in groups, and try to get rid of their neighbors. 

After penicillin, some bacteria became new pathogens. 

Beta Lactam Antiobiotics

…are bacteriolytic, prevent the synthesis and maintenence of cell wall, causing autolysis.  Bacteria make beta lactamase to destroy BL rings. 

Penillins

Cephalosporins

Carbapenems

The beta lactam ring is a (C=O)NHCH2CH2

Amoxicillin is a penicillin is bubble gum flavaored.  Clavulcanic acid is a BLA.  It protects BLA from beta lactamase. 

Cephalosporins are 1st, 2nd, 3rd and the 4th generation.  1st gen Keflex was very active against gram +.  2nd gen attacks more gram -.  3rd gen is both but more gram -.  4th is more resistentant to beta lactamases.  Pseudomonas aeruginosa is hard to kill.

Carbapenems are broad spectrum. 

Vancomycin has no BL ring.  Is not a BL antibiotic. 

Bacterial ribosome inhibitors attack the 30s subunit or the 50s subunit.  Ribosomes make proteins.  Linda has 5 letters and is hit by clindamycin.

Bacteria exert resistance by efflux pump or ribosome mutation.  Tetracyclines were bacteriostatic.

Doxycycline is used against anthrax. 

Clindamycin is used for severe anerobic infction.  In combination with aminoglycosides for penetrating wounds of the gut. 

DBP is a by disinfection product.

Fluoroquinolones are DNA gyrase inhibitors.

Influenza

It’s the flu.  RNA virus.  Chills, fever, pharyngitis, muscle pain, headache, discomfort.  The worst cold you’ve ever had for a week or so.  Types A and B. 

Antigenic drift – small changes.  Antigens change. 

Antigenic shift – large changes.   New hemagglutinin or neuraminidase proteins.  The viral capsid has 8 RNA strands. 

Swine flu/avian flu – animals get influenza as well.

Russian Flu 1889  1 million dead

Spanish Flu 1918  40 -100 million dead

Asian Flu 1951 1.5 million dead

Hong Kong Flu 1968 1 million dead

Tamiflue is a prodrug requiring converion to active form, inhibits neuaminidase.  Interferes with the ability to attach. 

Review

Chloramine – NHCl2, NH2Cl, NCl3

shape shine shadow silhoutee

mEq = AW / (V x 1000)

horizontal/vertical/diagonal spread

30 households per man per hour, 100 men, 1000 houses, 3 hours

pH = pK + log base/acid

  • Stay relaxed
  • Weapon moves first
  • Accelerate the weapon
  • Move towards the target
  • Penetrate

Acetyl COCH3

Thionyl chloride SOCl2

Barchan Dune 35 degrees down, 15 up

R-N=N-R Azo

Ambush – linear, L, V

C=S Thioketone

H2N(C=O)NH2 Urea

cash-futures = basis

+ basis negative carry

– basis positive carry

4 carbons overwhelm hydrogen bonding

Atmosphere: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere, exosphere

CTLSC 7 12 554

Sextuple Bond: Mo2, W2

Intermolecular Bonding: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, van der Waals

Hydrogen Bonding: FON Cl

Mandatory Refusal – when communications are lost, no one is trusted. A breach is assumed.

Gain Band Width Product = Gain x Bandwidth

CARVER is an acronym that stands for Criticality, Accessibility, Recuperability, Vulnerability, Effect and Recognizability.

Wind Speed Beaufort Category How to Judge the Wind
1-3 mph Light Air Smoke drifts. Wind cannot be felt.
4-7 mph Light Breeze Wind felt on face. Leaves rustle. Weather vanes move.
8-12 mph Gentle Breeze Leaves and twigs in motion. Light flags are extended.
13-18 mph Moderate Breeze Wind raises dust and loose papers. Small branches move. Flags flap.
19-24 mph Fresh Breeze Small trees in leaf sway slightly. Wavelets form on ponds and lakes.
25-31 mph Strong Breeze Large branches move. Telephone lines sing.

Visible Light – 400 to 700 nm

adam boy charles david edward frank george henry ida john kevin lincoln mary nora ocean paul queen robert sam tom union victor william xray young zebra
bull spread buy near, sell far
bear spread sell near, buy farcash – futures = basis

spreads are differences between futures contract months
cashpostive carry
cash>futures negative carry (inverted)
Basis: time space quality

Aromatic: planar, cyclic, Huckels Rule – 4n+2 electrons

Fibrous – sclera, cornea

Sensory – retina

Vascular – choroid, iris, pupil, ciliary body

Kingdoms – monera, protista, fungi, plant, animal

HSbF6 pKa = 25

Electrophiles are positive, nucleophiles are negative

EDTA is a tetraprotic acid.

C-C=O-C Ketone

Ketones containing alkene and alkyne units are often called unsaturated ketones.

Ph2CO Benzophenone

Sunflower 8 benzenes fused together

(H3C)(CO)(CO)(CH3) Diacetyl

Butanone MEK

Acetoin (H3C)(CO)(COH)CH3

Tissue: nervous muscular epithelial connective

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