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University of Hawaii: Pharmacology Principles


We’re skipping around alot, but in time we’ll do all 50 lecture that this guy put out.  Today’s offering costs 48 minutes.



An agonist binds to a receptor and activates it.  An antagonist binds to a receptor and blocks it.  A non-competitive agonist binds to a different part to the receptor than the agonist binding site. 

Physiologic antagonist have an opposite effect but through different physiologic pathways.  Epinepherine counteracts histamine.  Anaphalaxis is a severe allergic reaction.

EC50 is a concentration of a drug required to achieve half the max expected response. 

ED 50 is half the expected response. 

TD 50 is the dose that achieves toxicity in half of the subjects. 

LD 50 is the dose that kills half the subjects. 

5 half lives is considered complete elimination.

Bioavailability = systemic circulation/drug administered

Routes of Administration

PO – by mouth.  Blood from GIT goes to liver first.  BA from 10-50%. 

All drugs absorbed by the GIT enter the portal blood supply and go to the liver.  First pass effect

IV.  Directly into the bloodstream.  BA = 100%. 

IM is intramuscular.  The muscle holds onto the drug and releases it gradually.

SC is subcutaneously. 

PR is by rectum. 

Inhalation is to the lungs. 

Transdermal is applied to the skin and crosses the skin to the systemic blood supply.

Topical is applied to the skin and action intended locally.

Intranasal goes to the nasal mucosa into the base of the brain, the pituitary. 

Intrathecal is into the CSF.  By way of the foramen magnum.  Methotrexate. 

Epidural is outside the spiral dura.

Intraarticular into the joint space. 

Prodrugs need to be activated.  Drugs make their first pass through the liver, converting it into the active form. 

Protonsil is the first sulfonabmidethat worked in vivo or living organisms.  In vivo is the test tube.  Protonsil has no action in vivo

Permeation is the penetration of the drug into the spaces.  It may be aqueous, lipid, special carriers for molecules too large, endo or exocytosis.  When the sodium/potassium pump is working, glucose and amino acids come in with sodium. 

transformation is chemical changing. 

Phase 1 oxidation is CYP cytochrome P450 conversion into a water soluble form. 

Phase 2 reactions are conjugation to highly polar groups.  if not polar enough. 

Elimination is removal.  Urination is kidney, defecation is hepatic elimination by bile.  liver to bile is hepatic.  Most drugs require both.

Volume of Distribution = Drug in Body/Blood Concentration

…blood stays in the blood distribution, small dist.  To the entire body, large Vd.  Kids in the living room, whole house. 

Clearance = elimination rate/drug concentration

if dosing interval is shorter than 4 half lives, accumulation will occur. 

Loading Dose = Vd x TC (total concentration)

Dosing Rate = Clearance x target concentration



ONC octa nitro cubane

Schiff Base C=N-R

G = H-TS = -RTlnK = -nFE

A lactone is a cyclic ester

R-(O=S=O)-NH2 is a sulfonamide

The beta lactam ring is a (C=O)NHCH2CH2

Chloramine – NHCl2, NH2Cl, NCl3

Nitroso R-N=O

Nitrous Acid R-O-N=O 3.4

Cyanate H-N=C=O

shape shine shadow silhoutee

mEq = AW / (V x 1000)

horizontal/vertical/diagonal spread

30 households per man per hour, 100 men, 1000 houses, 3 hours

pH = pK + log base/acid

  • Stay relaxed
  • Weapon moves first
  • Accelerate the weapon
  • Move towards the target
  • Penetrate

Acetyl COCH3

Thionyl chloride SOCl2

Barchan Dune 35 degrees down, 15 up

R-N=N-R Azo

Ambush – linear, L, V

C=S Thioketone

H2N(C=O)NH2 Urea

cash-futures = basis

+ basis negative carry

– basis positive carry

4 carbons overwhelm hydrogen bonding

Atmosphere: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere, exosphere

CTLSC 7 12 554

Sextuple Bond: Mo2, W2

Intermolecular Bonding: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, van der Waals

Hydrogen Bonding: FON Cl

Mandatory Refusal – when communications are lost, no one is trusted. A breach is assumed.

Gain Band Width Product = Gain x Bandwidth

CARVER is an acronym that stands for Criticality, Accessibility, Recuperability, Vulnerability, Effect and Recognizability.

Wind Speed Beaufort Category How to Judge the Wind
1-3 mph Light Air Smoke drifts. Wind cannot be felt.
4-7 mph Light Breeze Wind felt on face. Leaves rustle. Weather vanes move.
8-12 mph Gentle Breeze Leaves and twigs in motion. Light flags are extended.
13-18 mph Moderate Breeze Wind raises dust and loose papers. Small branches move. Flags flap.
19-24 mph Fresh Breeze Small trees in leaf sway slightly. Wavelets form on ponds and lakes.
25-31 mph Strong Breeze Large branches move. Telephone lines sing.

Visible Light – 400 to 700 nm

adam boy charles david edward frank george henry ida john kevin lincoln mary nora ocean paul queen robert sam tom union victor william xray young zebra
bull spread buy near, sell far
bear spread sell near, buy farcash – futures = basis

spreads are differences between futures contract months
cashpostive carry
cash>futures negative carry (inverted)
Basis: time space quality

Aromatic: planar, cyclic, Huckels Rule – 4n+2 electrons

Fibrous – sclera, cornea

Sensory – retina

Vascular – choroid, iris, pupil, ciliary body

Kingdoms – monera, protista, fungi, plant, animal

HSbF6 pKa = 25

Electrophiles are positive, nucleophiles are negative

EDTA is a tetraprotic acid.

C-C=O-C Ketone

Ketones containing alkene and alkyne units are often called unsaturated ketones.

Ph2CO Benzophenone

Sunflower 8 benzenes fused together

(H3C)(CO)(CO)(CH3) Diacetyl

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