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University of Hawaii: Neurotransmission


Today we have an hour long lecture on the nervous system, again.  Mostly the focus is on neurotransmitters. 



A nerve is a collection of nerve axon fibers.  Efferent is out, afferent is in. 

APs only run in one direction.  APs cause NT to be released from synaptic terminals.  The NT is released into the synapse, the space between the axon and the target. 

NTs: catecholamines, serotinin, GABA, ACh.

ACh is made from AcoA made by mitochondria.  Lecithin has fatty acids that contain choline. 

The NT that signals voluntary muscle is ACh.  The receptor type is nicotinic.   

Used in teh autonomic nervous system.  Receptor is muscarinic.  The NT signals the parasympathetic smooth muscle is ACh. 

Catecholamines are made from tyrosine.  Found in the ANS.  Receptor is alpha and beta. 

To get NT out of the synapse, its pumped out or broken down.

Acetycholine esterase breaks down ACh in the synapse.  If we block esterase, we get more ACh in the synapse.

Gated ion channels are instant on off switches cause voltage changes.  Secondary messengers allow complex chemical reactions to occur, causing gradual metabolic change. 

cAMP is a 2nd messenger.  Phosphodiesterase removes camp.  PDE. PDE inhibited by caffeine. 

Ionotropics open ion channels.  Metabotropics cause 2nd messenger activation.

Na, K, Cl, Ca are all recepter.  Na K pumps are very important; Na out, K in, use ATP for energy.  Serium is ECF, Na is 135, K is 3. 

An AP is a wave of voltage change that occurs by opening and closing of ion channels.  Na in, K out. 

Botumism is caused by a toxin.  Prevents ACh release.  Paralysis, no ability to breats.  Botulinum toxin is one of the moer powerful toxins there is. 

ACl mimics are nicotine and muscarine. 


ONC octa nitro cubane

Schiff Base C=N-R

G = H-TS = -RTlnK = -nFE

A lactone is a cyclic ester

R-(O=S=O)-NH2 is a sulfonamide

The beta lactam ring is a (C=O)NHCH2CH2

Chloramine – NHCl2, NH2Cl, NCl3

Nitroso R-N=O

Nitrous Acid R-O-N=O 3.4

Cyanate H-N=C=O

shape shine shadow silhoutee

mEq = AW / (V x 1000)

horizontal/vertical/diagonal spread

30 households per man per hour, 100 men, 1000 houses, 3 hours

pH = pK + log base/acid

  • Stay relaxed
  • Weapon moves first
  • Accelerate the weapon
  • Move towards the target
  • Penetrate

Acetyl COCH3

Thionyl chloride SOCl2

Barchan Dune 35 degrees down, 15 up

R-N=N-R Azo

Ambush – linear, L, V

C=S Thioketone

H2N(C=O)NH2 Urea

cash-futures = basis

+ basis negative carry

– basis positive carry

4 carbons overwhelm hydrogen bonding

Atmosphere: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere, exosphere

CTLSC 7 12 554

Sextuple Bond: Mo2, W2

Intermolecular Bonding: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, van der Waals

Hydrogen Bonding: FON Cl

Mandatory Refusal – when communications are lost, no one is trusted. A breach is assumed.

Gain Band Width Product = Gain x Bandwidth

CARVER is an acronym that stands for Criticality, Accessibility, Recuperability, Vulnerability, Effect and Recognizability.

Wind Speed Beaufort Category How to Judge the Wind
1-3 mph Light Air Smoke drifts. Wind cannot be felt.
4-7 mph Light Breeze Wind felt on face. Leaves rustle. Weather vanes move.
8-12 mph Gentle Breeze Leaves and twigs in motion. Light flags are extended.
13-18 mph Moderate Breeze Wind raises dust and loose papers. Small branches move. Flags flap.
19-24 mph Fresh Breeze Small trees in leaf sway slightly. Wavelets form on ponds and lakes.
25-31 mph Strong Breeze Large branches move. Telephone lines sing.

Visible Light – 400 to 700 nm

adam boy charles david edward frank george henry ida john kevin lincoln mary nora ocean paul queen robert sam tom union victor william xray young zebra
bull spread buy near, sell far
bear spread sell near, buy farcash – futures = basis

spreads are differences between futures contract months
cashpostive carry
cash>futures negative carry (inverted)
Basis: time space quality

Aromatic: planar, cyclic, Huckels Rule – 4n+2 electrons

Fibrous – sclera, cornea

Sensory – retina

Vascular – choroid, iris, pupil, ciliary body

Kingdoms – monera, protista, fungi, plant, animal

HSbF6 pKa = 25

Electrophiles are positive, nucleophiles are negative

EDTA is a tetraprotic acid.

C-C=O-C Ketone

Ketones containing alkene and alkyne units are often called unsaturated ketones.

Ph2CO Benzophenone

Sunflower 8 benzenes fused together

(H3C)(CO)(CO)(CH3) Diacetyl

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