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University of Hawaii: Pharmacology


Today’s lecture is 60 minutes long



Endogenous substances are made inside the body.  Exogenous is made outside the body.  Hormones are endogenous drugs.  Xenobiotics are exogenous drugs or just a drug.  Poisons are drugs that have almost exclusively harmful effects.  Toxins are poisons of biologic origin. 

A receptor is a specific molecule that interacts then causes a change in regulation.  Agonists activate the receptor, antagonists block the receptor.  When the agonist leaves, the receptor is deactivated.  Some agonists cause a permanent change. 

Non competitive antagonists bind at other sites than that used by the agonist. 

Drugs must be absorbed, it must be delivered.  Most drugs are weak acids or weak bases.  Strong mean more complete dissociation, not how much it burns.  Adding base to acids neutralizes them.

R-COOH (uncharged aspirin or lipophillic) = R-COO-H+ (ionic aspirin hydrophillic)

NaCl = Na+ + Cl-

If a solution is saturated, Na+ and Cl- will recombine to form NaCl

Alkalinity is the ability to resist changes in pH. 

pH = pKa + log base/acid

pKa is the pH when the molecule is completely balanced.  Small changes in pH change the drug to lipd soluble which pases through cell membranes. 

(in stomach) HCl = H+ + Cl- = H-Drug (lipid soluble)

physiologic pH is 7.35.

Agginity is how tightly the receptor binds the drug – covalent, electrostatic, lipohillic, vdW.  Covalent is very strong, not reversible.  Electrostatic for ionic and hydrogen bonding; strong. 

Pharmacodynamics is the actions of the drug on the body.  Pharmacokinetics is the body on the drug. 

For example: PD – drug is metabolized and elminated by the liver and kidneys.  PD , propranolol is a beta adrenergic antagonist, lowering blood pressure and heart rate. 

Receptors are responbilble for selectivity. 

The response/concentration curve is assymotiotic.

Potentcy -concentration required for an effect. 

Efficancy – the effect of a drug.  Has a higher response.

Quantal dose effect curve implies a binary drug response.   


ONC octa nitro cubane

Schiff Base C=N-R

acetic acid 4.76
methanol 15.2

G = H-TS = -RTlnK = -nFE

A lactone is a cyclic ester

R-(O=S=O)-NH2 is a sulfonamide

The beta lactam ring is a (C=O)NHCH2CH2

Chloramine – NHCl2, NH2Cl, NCl3

Nitroso R-N=O

Nitrous Acid R-O-N=O 3.4

Cyanate H-N=C=O

shape shine shadow silhoutee

mEq = AW / (V x 1000)

horizontal/vertical/diagonal spread

30 households per man per hour, 100 men, 1000 houses, 3 hours

pH = pK + log base/acid

  • Stay relaxed
  • Weapon moves first
  • Accelerate the weapon
  • Move towards the target
  • Penetrate

Acetyl COCH3

Thionyl chloride SOCl2

Barchan Dune 35 degrees down, 15 up

R-N=N-R Azo

Ambush – linear, L, V

C=S Thioketone

H2N(C=O)NH2 Urea

cash-futures = basis

+ basis negative carry

– basis positive carry

4 carbons overwhelm hydrogen bonding

Atmosphere: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere, exosphere

CTLSC 7 12 554

Sextuple Bond: Mo2, W2

Intermolecular Bonding: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, van der Waals

Hydrogen Bonding: FON Cl

Mandatory Refusal – when communications are lost, no one is trusted. A breach is assumed.

Gain Band Width Product = Gain x Bandwidth

CARVER is an acronym that stands for Criticality, Accessibility, Recuperability, Vulnerability, Effect and Recognizability.

Wind Speed Beaufort Category How to Judge the Wind
1-3 mph Light Air Smoke drifts. Wind cannot be felt.
4-7 mph Light Breeze Wind felt on face. Leaves rustle. Weather vanes move.
8-12 mph Gentle Breeze Leaves and twigs in motion. Light flags are extended.
13-18 mph Moderate Breeze Wind raises dust and loose papers. Small branches move. Flags flap.
19-24 mph Fresh Breeze Small trees in leaf sway slightly. Wavelets form on ponds and lakes.
25-31 mph Strong Breeze Large branches move. Telephone lines sing.

Visible Light – 400 to 700 nm

adam boy charles david edward frank george henry ida john kevin lincoln mary nora ocean paul queen robert sam tom union victor william xray young zebra
bull spread buy near, sell far
bear spread sell near, buy farcash – futures = basis

spreads are differences between futures contract months
cashpostive carry
cash>futures negative carry (inverted)
Basis: time space quality

Aromatic: planar, cyclic, Huckels Rule – 4n+2 electrons

Fibrous – sclera, cornea

Sensory – retina

Vascular – choroid, iris, pupil, ciliary body

Kingdoms – monera, protista, fungi, plant, animal

HSbF6 pKa = 25

Electrophiles are positive, nucleophiles are negative

EDTA is a tetraprotic acid.

C-C=O-C Ketone

Ketones containing alkene and alkyne units are often called unsaturated ketones.

Ph2CO Benzophenone

Sunflower 8 benzenes fused together

(H3C)(CO)(CO)(CH3) Diacetyl

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