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University of Hawaii: Cellular Physiology


Time for a little cell phys.  53 minutes will be your outlay for this.



All creatures organize their metabolism machinary into cells. 

The nucleus is the control center.  DNA is the plans for protein synthesis.  The nucleous stores the RNA; ribosomes are proteins that make proteins.  Mitochondria use electron transfer to make ATP.  Your mtDNA comes only from mommy.

From in to out: nucleolus, nucleoplasm, nuclear envelope, nuclear pore, SER, RER, GA, transport vesicle, plasma membrane.

The SER makes lipids and hormones.  The RER makes proteins. The GA is the cell’s post office. 

The PM has a phospholipid layer.  The hydrophillic heads face out, the hydrophobic tails face inward.  Butter sandwich.  Pharmacology is all about getting drugs into cells and through membranes. 

PO4-3 is quite hydrophillic.  A COOH on a hydrocarbon makes a fatty acid.  2 fatty acids + phosphate gives us out phospholipid.   Water soluble substances can’t pass through the membrane.  The lipid center prevents this. 

The fluid inside the cell is the cytosol or ICF.  The fluid outside the cell is the ECF. 

Proteins are made of chains of AAs; made by the ribosomes. 

globulin/globins are proteins.  -ase is an enzyme. 

Free proteins are made by free ribosomes.  Membrane bound prtiens are made by RER.

Sodium potassium pump: 3 Na+ out, 2 K+ in. 

Ribosomes take mRNA in and put out AAs. 


Phenylalanine into tyrosine into dopamine.  Prolines are involved in U turns in the polypeptide chain. 

Alpha helixes are like springs, beta sheets are very stiff; found in muscles and ligaments.  AH and BS are secondary structure.  Globular and conformational strucutres are tertiary and quaternary.  The AA seq is the primary structure. 

Many proteins are temerature labile.  Many proetins need a coenzyme to work properly.  Every 3 NA make up a codon for an AA. 

NAs = phosphate, sugar, base



   2 3

ATP is the coinage of the cell.  Glucose is broken down into things the mitochondria can use to make ATP.  ATP-> cAMP (secondary messenger)


A lactone is a cyclic ester

R-(O=S=O)-NH2 is a sulfonamide

The beta lactam ring is a (C=O)NHCH2CH2

Chloramine – NHCl2, NH2Cl, NCl3

Nitroso R-N=O

Nitrous Acid R-O-N=O 3.4

Cyanate H-N=C=O

shape shine shadow silhoutee

mEq = AW / (V x 1000)

horizontal/vertical/diagonal spread

30 households per man per hour, 100 men, 1000 houses, 3 hours

pH = pK + log base/acid

  • Stay relaxed
  • Weapon moves first
  • Accelerate the weapon
  • Move towards the target
  • Penetrate

Acetyl COCH3

Thionyl chloride SOCl2

Barchan Dune 35 degrees down, 15 up

R-N=N-R Azo

Ambush – linear, L, V

C=S Thioketone

H2N(C=O)NH2 Urea

cash-futures = basis

+ basis negative carry

– basis positive carry

4 carbons overwhelm hydrogen bonding

Atmosphere: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere, exosphere

CTLSC 7 12 554

Sextuple Bond: Mo2, W2

Intermolecular Bonding: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, van der Waals

Hydrogen Bonding: FON Cl

Mandatory Refusal – when communications are lost, no one is trusted. A breach is assumed.

Gain Band Width Product = Gain x Bandwidth

CARVER is an acronym that stands for Criticality, Accessibility, Recuperability, Vulnerability, Effect and Recognizability.

Wind Speed Beaufort Category How to Judge the Wind
1-3 mph Light Air Smoke drifts. Wind cannot be felt.
4-7 mph Light Breeze Wind felt on face. Leaves rustle. Weather vanes move.
8-12 mph Gentle Breeze Leaves and twigs in motion. Light flags are extended.
13-18 mph Moderate Breeze Wind raises dust and loose papers. Small branches move. Flags flap.
19-24 mph Fresh Breeze Small trees in leaf sway slightly. Wavelets form on ponds and lakes.
25-31 mph Strong Breeze Large branches move. Telephone lines sing.

Visible Light – 400 to 700 nm

adam boy charles david edward frank george henry ida john kevin lincoln mary nora ocean paul queen robert sam tom union victor william xray young zebra
bull spread buy near, sell far
bear spread sell near, buy farcash – futures = basis

spreads are differences between futures contract months
cashpostive carry
cash>futures negative carry (inverted)
Basis: time space quality

Aromatic: planar, cyclic, Huckels Rule – 4n+2 electrons

Fibrous – sclera, cornea

Sensory – retina

Vascular – choroid, iris, pupil, ciliary body

Kingdoms – monera, protista, fungi, plant, animal

HSbF6 pKa = 25

Electrophiles are positive, nucleophiles are negative

EDTA is a tetraprotic acid.

C-C=O-C Ketone

Ketones containing alkene and alkyne units are often called unsaturated ketones.

Ph2CO Benzophenone

Sunflower 8 benzenes fused together

(H3C)(CO)(CO)(CH3) Diacetyl

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