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Human Anatomy: Histology


Histology is a favorite of mine; thanks Larry for commenting recently.  We’ll review this lecture since its been quite some time.  This one will cost 34 minutes.


I’m going to put my next lecture series here so that I remember it:



All CT derives from the mesoderm.  CT is highly vascularized.  Epithelial tissue has no vascularization.  CT consists of cells and intercellular matter; cells are not closely packed together. 

CT is classifed according to intercellular matter and cell type.

Areolar/Loose – most are fibroblasts.  Fibroblasts secrete proteins called collagen (strength) and elastin (flexibility).  Found everywhere in the body. 

Macrophages consume foreign bodies.  Large cells.

Mast cells release heparin and histamine.  Histamine mediates inflammation.  Injury causes MCs to release histamine which causes inflammation, dilating the BVs. 

Eryethema is the clinical term for turning red.  A RBC is a erythrocyte.  Histamine increases the permeability of capillaries in an wall area.  Edema is swelling. 

Inflammation Effects:

Redness, swelling, pain

Local dilation of BVs erythema, increased permeability of BVs swelling, local stimultion of pain fibers causing pain.  Increased flow of O2 and nutrients. 

Strep throat is a bacterial infection of your throat.  It is eating you, causing injury.  Throat get inflamed.  A cold is a virus in the nasal passages causing inflammation.

Adipose CT is fat tissue.  Looks like honeycombs or large empty cells.  Adipocytes.  A large vacoule holds fat.  Insulation, food reserve and organ protection.  Alot of fat around the heart, kidneys and eyes. 

Dense Fibrous CT

This is fibroblasts and collagen


The collagen runs in the same direction.  Tissue is very strong in one direction.  A tendon connects muscle to bone.  Ligaments hold bones together.  Dura mater. 

DAP dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater, going down.


The collagen runs in many directions.  Moderate in many directions.  Dermis, scars. 

In the skin, the epidermis is stratified squamous epithelium cells; the dermis is dense irregular cells. 

Keratinizing or non-keratinizing epithelial tissue.  Outside has dead, flaky cells with pigmentation.  The cells in the check are surrouned by fluid and are alive.  Melanin shields epithelil cells from UV rays, so no pigments in the mouth. 

The epidermis on the inside of the mouth is non-keritinizing.  From out to inside the check is epidermis, dermis, muscle, dermis, epidermis. 

Cartilage is an unusual CT.  It has no BVs, so it doesn’t heal well.  Made of chondrocytes surrouned by fluid called lacuna. 

There is fibrocartilage, elastin, and hylaine.  Fibrocartilage is found in the intervertebral disks.  Elastic cartilage is found in the ears.  Hylaine cartilage in the nose and trachea. 


A lactone is a cyclic ester

R-(O=S=O)-NH2 is a sulfonamide

The beta lactam ring is a (C=O)NHCH2CH2

Chloramine – NHCl2, NH2Cl, NCl3

Nitroso R-N=O

Nitrous Acid R-O-N=O 3.4

Cyanate H-N=C=O

shape shine shadow silhouette

mEq = AW / (V x 1000)

horizontal/vertical/diagonal spread

30 households per man per hour, 100 men, 1000 houses, 3 hours

pH = pK + log base/acid

  • Stay relaxed
  • Weapon moves first
  • Accelerate the weapon
  • Move towards the target
  • Penetrate

Acetyl COCH3

Thionyl chloride SOCl2

Barchan Dune 35 degrees down, 15 up

R-N=N-R Azo

Ambush – linear, L, V

C=S Thioketone

H2N(C=O)NH2 Urea

cash-futures = basis

+ basis negative carry

– basis positive carry

4 carbons overwhelm hydrogen bonding

Atmosphere: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere, exosphere

CTLSC 7 12 554

Sextuple Bond: Mo2, W2

Intermolecular Bonding: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, van der Waals

Hydrogen Bonding: FON Cl

Mandatory Refusal – when communications are lost, no one is trusted. A breach is assumed.

Gain Band Width Product = Gain x Bandwidth

CARVER is an acronym that stands for Criticality, Accessibility, Recuperability, Vulnerability, Effect and Recognizability.

Wind Speed Beaufort Category How to Judge the Wind
1-3 mph Light Air Smoke drifts. Wind cannot be felt.
4-7 mph Light Breeze Wind felt on face. Leaves rustle. Weather vanes move.
8-12 mph Gentle Breeze Leaves and twigs in motion. Light flags are extended.
13-18 mph Moderate Breeze Wind raises dust and loose papers. Small branches move. Flags flap.
19-24 mph Fresh Breeze Small trees in leaf sway slightly. Wavelets form on ponds and lakes.
25-31 mph Strong Breeze Large branches move. Telephone lines sing.

Visible Light – 400 to 700 nm

adam boy charles david edward frank george henry ida john kevin lincoln mary nora ocean paul queen robert sam tom union victor william xray young zebra
bull spread buy near, sell far
bear spread sell near, buy farcash – futures = basis

spreads are differences between futures contract months
cashpostive carry
cash>futures negative carry (inverted)
Basis: time space quality

Aromatic: planar, cyclic, Huckels Rule – 4n+2 electrons

Fibrous – sclera, cornea

Sensory – retina

Vascular – choroid, iris, pupil, ciliary body

Kingdoms – monera, protista, fungi, plant, animal

HSbF6 pKa = 25

Electrophiles are positive, nucleophiles are negative

EDTA is a tetraprotic acid.

C-C=O-C Ketone

Ketones containing alkene and alkyne units are often called unsaturated ketones.

Ph2CO Benzophenone

Sunflower 8 benzenes fused together

(H3C)(CO)(CO)(CH3) Diacetyl

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