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University of Hawaii: Biochemistry

Overview

Wooo!  Long lecture today at 80 minutes.  Alot of physics are covered here. 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dbl1jW2UHKc

Details

Rainbows or spectrums tell us about outer space.  Different rates of diffraction vary the speed of light in a medium and bend the light.  ANything that burns gives off light.  Light through a prism causes a spectrum of light. 

EM spectrum: gamma, X rays, UV, vis, IR, microwave, FM, AM, long radio waves. 

When cell phones were first made, background microwave frequency from space were disruptive. 

Wavelength in meters = 300/frequency in MHz

Doppler Effect:  Waves in the forward direction are compressed, those trailing are lengthened.  When stars move away from us, light is shifted. 

He claims 110 elements.  It’s a flat map of a round planet.  He focuses on HCNO.  The atom is the smallest particle the chemist worries over. 

Atoms are made of protons, neutrons and electrons.  The number of protons determines the element.  The nucleons of neutrons and protons are in the nucleus.  The electron orbits outside.  This is the old Bohr model. 

Helium is inert and does not react.  The number of neutrons can vary, causing isotopes.  Atoms are quite empty.  A proton is comparable to a guava, an electron is a peanut, the orbit is a football stadium size. 

Orbital energy give the atom its size.  If the e- stopped orbiting, collapse the atom into the size of the nucleus. 

H2 has two protons and share 2 electrons.  Hydrogen ion is a proton.  Hydrogen atom is a proton and e-.  A hydrogen molecule is H2.  H2 is rare in the atmosphere as it floats away.  75% of the universe is H. 

Electron sharing is covalent bonds. 

Oxygen can make two covalent bonds.  O=O.  They like to share two e-.  Neon has 5 houses of electrons.  The atmosphere is 21% O2.  pO2 = 0.21

Mix H2 and O2 and nothing happens.  Add some activation energy as a fire, and boom! 
2H2 + O2 = 2H2O and fire

Water attracts polar molecules.  Hydrogen bonding. 

To control the burning of O2 and H2, use carbon as a backbone for biological molecules. 

Carbon forms 4 covalent bonds.  Tetrahydrofuran is O(CH2)4. 

Tyrosine the R group is CH3-C6H4-OH.  The alpha carbon is connected to the R group.  H3N-CRH-COOH. 

Nitrogens form 3 covalent bonds.  It can make 4 bonds which will give N+. 

N2 + 3H2 = 2NH3  Nitrogen Fixation

Moving protons from one molecule to another is the acid base game. 

Cations are positively charged.  Anions are negative.  Saturated hydrocarbons have no double bonds.  Hydrocarbons are non-polar, repel water, hydrophobic, lipophillic. 

He does something kind of cool, putting two periodic tables together and making the noble gases in the middle. 

Kinases move a phosphate on or off an atom. 

Review

B electric field strength

H magnetic field strength

E electric displacement field

D magnetic displacement field

A lactone is a cyclic ester

R-(O=S=O)-NH2 is a sulfonamide

The beta lactam ring is a (C=O)NHCH2CH2

Chloramine – NHCl2, NH2Cl, NCl3

Nitroso R-N=O

Nitrous Acid R-O-N=O 3.4

Cyanate H-N=C=O

shape shine shadow silhouette

mEq = AW / (V x 1000)

horizontal/vertical/diagonal spread

30 households per man per hour, 100 men, 1000 houses, 3 hours

pH = pK + log base/acid

  • Stay relaxed
  • Weapon moves first
  • Accelerate the weapon
  • Move towards the target
  • Penetrate

Acetyl COCH3

Thionyl chloride SOCl2

Barchan Dune 35 degrees down, 15 up

R-N=N-R Azo

Ambush – linear, L, V

C=S Thioketone

H2N(C=O)NH2 Urea

cash-futures = basis

+ basis negative carry

– basis positive carry

4 carbons overwhelm hydrogen bonding

Atmosphere: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere, exosphere

CTLSC 7 12 554

Sextuple Bond: Mo2, W2

Intermolecular Bonding: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, van der Waals

Hydrogen Bonding: FON Cl

Mandatory Refusal – when communications are lost, no one is trusted. A breach is assumed.

Gain Band Width Product = Gain x Bandwidth

CARVER is an acronym that stands for Criticality, Accessibility, Recuperability, Vulnerability, Effect and Recognizability.

Wind Speed Beaufort Category How to Judge the Wind
1-3 mph Light Air Smoke drifts. Wind cannot be felt.
4-7 mph Light Breeze Wind felt on face. Leaves rustle. Weather vanes move.
8-12 mph Gentle Breeze Leaves and twigs in motion. Light flags are extended.
13-18 mph Moderate Breeze Wind raises dust and loose papers. Small branches move. Flags flap.
19-24 mph Fresh Breeze Small trees in leaf sway slightly. Wavelets form on ponds and lakes.
25-31 mph Strong Breeze Large branches move. Telephone lines sing.

Visible Light – 400 to 700 nm

adam boy charles david edward frank george henry ida john kevin lincoln mary nora ocean paul queen robert sam tom union victor william xray young zebra
bull spread buy near, sell far
bear spread sell near, buy farcash – futures = basis

spreads are differences between futures contract months
cashpostive carry
cash>futures negative carry (inverted)
Basis: time space quality

Aromatic: planar, cyclic, Huckels Rule – 4n+2 electrons

Fibrous – sclera, cornea

Sensory – retina

Vascular – choroid, iris, pupil, ciliary body

Kingdoms – monera, protista, fungi, plant, animal

HSbF6 pKa = 25

Electrophiles are positive, nucleophiles are negative

EDTA is a tetraprotic acid.

C-C=O-C Ketone

Ketones containing alkene and alkyne units are often called unsaturated ketones.

Ph2CO Benzophenone

Sunflower 8 benzenes fused together

(H3C)(CO)(CO)(CH3) Diacetyl

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