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Human Anatomy: RAA Reflex


We’ll study blood pressure today for 48 minutes.  Today’s lecture is all about the homeostasis of BP.



The kidney is an endocrine gland.  Almost every tissue in the body secretes hormones.  The kidney secretes renin, also epigen.

JG or juxta glomurular cells secrete renin.  Drop in BP, drop in sodium levels, increases in K+ levels all trigger renin release.

Renin acts on angiotensinogen, a protein in the blood made in the liver.  Angiotensin 1 is activated.  In the lungs, ACE makes AT1 into AT2.  Then angiotensin 2 is activated.  Finally aldosterone is activated after release from the adrenal gland.

Three things happen: K+ excreted, H2O retention, NaCl retention.  Blood plasma volume is expanded, raising BP.  More blood in the vessels increases the pressure in the veins.  If you lose blood, your BP drops.

The most important electrolytes are sodium Na+ and potassium K+.

-gen is the inactive form of a protein.  Pepsinogen is activated by HCl in the stomach.

ADH is made by the hypothalamus, stored/secreted from the pituitary.  Controls osmolarity of CSF.  Increases H2o retention.  Too little ADH leads to diabetes incipidus.

Normal BP is 120/80.  This is for the brachial artery.  High BP is 140/90.  20% of americans have BP. To assist, reduce stress/RAA reflex.

Primary BP has unknown causes, maybe atherosclerosis.  Renal HT is caused by hyperaldosteronism.


You can use drugs to stop any step of RAA relex loop.  The trend is to stop HT earlier in the cycle.

The skeleton is an endocrine gland.  Osteocalcium.  Helps control sugar levels.


C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36 ATP

B electric field strength

H magnetic field strength

E electric displacement field

D magnetic displacement field

A lactone is a cyclic ester

R-(O=S=O)-NH2 is a sulfonamide

The beta lactam ring is a (C=O)NHCH2CH2

Chloramine – NHCl2, NH2Cl, NCl3

Nitroso R-N=O

Nitrous Acid R-O-N=O 3.4

Cyanate H-N=C=O

shape shine shadow silhouette

mEq = AW / (V x 1000)

horizontal/vertical/diagonal spread

30 households per man per hour, 100 men, 1000 houses, 3 hours

pH = pK + log base/acid

  • Stay relaxed
  • Weapon moves first
  • Accelerate the weapon
  • Move towards the target
  • Penetrate

Acetyl COCH3

Thionyl chloride SOCl2

Barchan Dune 35 degrees down, 15 up

R-N=N-R Azo

Ambush – linear, L, V

C=S Thioketone

H2N(C=O)NH2 Urea

cash-futures = basis

+ basis negative carry

– basis positive carry

4 carbons overwhelm hydrogen bonding

Atmosphere: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere, exosphere

CTLSC 7 12 554

Sextuple Bond: Mo2, W2

Intermolecular Bonding: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, van der Waals

Hydrogen Bonding: FON Cl

Mandatory Refusal – when communications are lost, no one is trusted. A breach is assumed.

Gain Band Width Product = Gain x Bandwidth

CARVER is an acronym that stands for Criticality, Accessibility, Recuperability, Vulnerability, Effect and Recognizability.

Wind Speed Beaufort Category How to Judge the Wind
1-3 mph Light Air Smoke drifts. Wind cannot be felt.
4-7 mph Light Breeze Wind felt on face. Leaves rustle. Weather vanes move.
8-12 mph Gentle Breeze Leaves and twigs in motion. Light flags are extended.
13-18 mph Moderate Breeze Wind raises dust and loose papers. Small branches move. Flags flap.
19-24 mph Fresh Breeze Small trees in leaf sway slightly. Wavelets form on ponds and lakes.
25-31 mph Strong Breeze Large branches move. Telephone lines sing.

Visible Light – 400 to 700 nm

adam boy charles david edward frank george henry ida john kevin lincoln mary nora ocean paul queen robert sam tom union victor william xray young zebra bull spread buy near, sell far bear spread sell near, buy farcash – futures = basis

spreads are differences between futures contract months cashpostive carry cash>futures negative carry (inverted) Basis: time space quality

Aromatic: planar, cyclic, Huckels Rule – 4n+2 electrons

Fibrous – sclera, cornea

Sensory – retina

Vascular – choroid, iris, pupil, ciliary body

Kingdoms – monera, protista, fungi, plant, animal

HSbF6 pKa = 25

Electrophiles are positive, nucleophiles are negative

EDTA is a tetraprotic acid.

C-C=O-C Ketone

Ketones containing alkene and alkyne units are often called unsaturated ketones.

Ph2CO Benzophenone

Sunflower 8 benzenes fused together

(H3C)(CO)(CO)(CH3) Diacetyl

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