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Human Anatomy: Chromosomes


Today, we’ll cover an old lecture on chromosomes.  Ratfink is one of my favorite professors.  This review will cost 42 minutes.



A sperm and an egg combine to form a zygote during fertilization.  Sex cells have the haploid number of cells, 22 autosomes, 1 sex chromosome.  The zygote has 44 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes, the diploid number.    The zygote is the first somatic cell.  Adults have 60 trillion cells.  All body cells are theoretically genetically identical.

Mitosis is how somatic cells reproduce.  Half of the sperm have an X, half have a Y.  An XX is woman, XY is a man.  Karyotype is chromosomal analysis, a map of all 23 pairs of chromosomes.  Karyo means nucleus.

Sex cell division is meiosis.

Sex cells are sometimes called germ cells; sperm and ova.  Each ovum has an X sex chromosome.  Each sex cell is genetically unique.  Spermatogenesis in the testes, oogenesis in the ovaries.


Tissue: muscle, nerve, connective, epithelial

Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudo, cuboidal/columnar/squamous

Nucleophile: electrons available, negatively charged, less electronegative

Leaving Group: electron withdrawing, stabilizing, polarizing

Hydrogen Bonding: N 3, O 3.5, F 4, Cl 3

Polar Protic: OH or NH, SN1 reaction,

Intermolecular forces: ionic, hydrogen bonding, dipole dipole, van der Waals

Acetone (CH3)C=O(CH3) 24.2

Ammonia NH3 32.5

Methanol CH3OH 15.2

Ethanol CH3CH2OH 15.9

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