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Human Anatomy: The Circulatory System


Today, we have a new review series to begin.  This three-parter covers the circulatory system.



Circulatory system distributes O2, CO2, hormones, heat, water and nutrients to different parts of the body.  Protects us from foreign invaders.  There are two sub systems: cardiovascular and the lymphatic system.

The CV system is the heart and BVs.  60K miles of blood vessels.  Arterioles subdivide into intercollecting capillaries called capillary veins which turn into veinoiles.  Only across the capillary beds can things cross from the blood into the cells.

Lymph vessels carry excess fluid from the tissue fluid back to the blood vessels.

An artery carrys blood away from the heart, oxygenated blood.  A vein carries blood to the heart, deoxygenated blood.

A capillary bed is interconnected or anastimotic.  The heart is one of the first organs to form.  During the 3rd week of development, the neural tube develops.  The right heart pumps blood through the lungs.  The left heart pumps blood through the body, the systemic circuit.  The left works 6x harder.

Cardiac Output is 5 L of blood/minute at rest.  During exercise, it may rise to 15L/minute.  The heart is proportional to the size of the body; about the size of your fist.  The heart is in the medialsteinum or between the lungs, a bit left of center.  The left lung has one less lobe than the right, only 2 lobes.

The tip is the apex.  The upper chamber is the atrium, the lower chamber is the ventricle.  The heart rests on the diaphragm and lies in the pericardial sac.

peri = around

The heart has 3 layers.  Inner endo cardium is simple squamous epithelium.  The middle myocardium is the thickest layer.  The outer layer is the epicardium.  Endocarditis is inflammation of the endocardium.  The epicardium is also simple squamous and secretes a serous fluid.

The right heart is on the patient’s left side.  Upper atrium.  The superior VC and inferior VC carry high CO, low O2 blood to the right atrium.  The right ventricle takes blood to a right and left pulmonary artery to gain O2 and eliminate CO2.

The left ventricle ejects blood into the aorta.  The aorta is huge into the body into 100 smaller arteries.  Carotid, subclavian, celiac, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric artery, hepatic, renal.  The name of the vein is the name of the artery.

Valves ensure one way flow.


Tissue: muscle, nerve, connective, epithelial

Epithelial: simple/stratified/pseudo, cuboidal/columnar/squamous

Nucleophile: electrons available, negatively charged, less electronegative

Leaving Group: electron withdrawing, stabilizing, polarizing

Hydrogen Bonding: N 3, O 3.5, F 4, Cl 3

Polar Protic: OH or NH, SN1 reaction,

Intermolecular forces: ionic, hydrogen bonding, dipole dipole, van der Waals

Acetone (CH3)C=O(CH3) 24.2

Ammonia NH3 32.5

Methanol CH3OH 15.2

Ethanol CH3CH2OH 15.9

Categories: Uncategorized
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