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Human Anatomy: Inflammation

Overview
There’s so much information out there, I thought it would be beneficial to review the inflammatory response. This review will cost 46 minutes.

Details
Injured cells and WBCs release chemicals to cause inflammation. Histamine, kinins, leukotrienes, prostaglandins are all inflammation mediators.

Bacteria are parasites. Microbial infections, physical trauma, allergens like pollen, foods or medicines. Viruses lyse cells. Ischemia is lack of oxygen. Non lytic or lysogenic viruses do not lyse cells. CD4 or T cells are destroyed by AIDS.

The inflammatory response isolates and destroys noxious agents.
Leukocytic pyrogen and prostaglandin are carreied in the bloodstream to the brain where they affect neurons on the thermoregulatory reflex center causing fever. Inflammation mediators generally act locally.

Local BVs dialate (red), increase capillary permeability(swollen), activate local pain fibers by prostaglandins and kinins. Attract WBCs to the injury and promote phagocytasis. Chemotaxis is attracting WBCs. Neutrophils and monocytes do the eating.

breaking a fever is sweating the sheets. Increase body temperature. There are no antibiotics for viruses.

If the fever gets too high, proteins are denatured. A high grade fever is over 101.Low grade fevers are below 101. The brain and nervous system are not fully developed in babies.

Aspirin is anti pyretic, analgesic, anti inflammatory. ibuprofen, acetomphin. Blocks the synthesis and release of prostaglandins from injured tissue.

Interleukin 1 and prostaglandins increase the fever. Aspirin only addresses PGLs.

Review
Electronegativity: NOF Cl Kr

Flip Flops: SR, JK, D, T
H = (4 * Pi * #Turns * #Turns * coil Area * mu) / (coil Length * 10,000,000)

AC-to-AC converter)

MDS The minimum discernible signal

Capacitors store electric field, C=Q/V, Xc = 1/2piFC, C = EA/d, V = Qd/EA, E = 0.5CV2

Major Functional Areas:

Brainstem – midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata

Cerebellum

Hypothalamus

Thalamus (reticular activation system – waking center)

Cerebrum – limbic system (emotions), basal ganglia (subcortical nuclei), cerebral cortex

The 12 Pairs of Cranial Nerves

Most are mixed nerves. Most emerge from the brainstem.

Spinal nerves have 4 types of wires: somatic sensory, visceral sensory, autonomic neurons, somatic motor.

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Autonomic motor neurons control the salivary glands.

1 Olfactory – somatic sensory – sense of smell.

2 Optic – somatic sensory – sense of sight.

3 Occulomotor – somatic motor/autonomic motor. Voluntary control of eye muscles. Automatic control of pupil diameter. Pigmented muscle – iris.

4 Trochlear – somatic motor.

5 Trigeminal – somatic sensory/motor. – the most important cranial nerve in dentistry. Sensation from face and all the teeth. Mastication. 3 branches.

6 Abducens – somatic motor. Control lateral rectus.

7 Facial – 3/4. Taste from tongue. Contraction of facial muscles.

8 Vestibulocochlear – somatic sensory. Like 1 and 2. Sense of hearing and balance. Cochlea, vestibular apparatus.

9 Glossopharnogeal – means tongue/throat. Only nerve that is like a spinal nerve. Has all 4 types of wires. Taste. Somatic because one is conscious of it.

10 Vagus – both. The largest cranial nerves. Visceral sensory, somatic motor, autonomic motor. We don’t feel it. Internal organs.

11 Accessory – motor. Larynx, neck and traps muscles.

12 Hypoglossal -Motor. Under the tongue. Propriosection from the tongue. Injury, can’t move tongue or feel it.

Local anesthetics block nerve conduction in a particular area.

Viral infection of the facial nerve is Bell’s palsy.
Baroreceptors monitor blood pressure.
Tissues: muscle, nerve, connective, epithelial
Nucleophile: negative, has electrons available, less electronegative
•S – Size Up the Situation
• U – Use All Your Senses, Undue Haste Makes Waste
• R – Remember Where You Are
• V – Vanquish Fear and Panic
• I – Improvise
• V – Value Living
• A – Act Like the Natives
• L – Live by Your Wits, But for Now, Learn Basic Skills

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Categories: Uncategorized
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