Home > Uncategorized > Introduction to Solid State Chemistry Lecture 25 Notes: Aqueous Solutions

Introduction to Solid State Chemistry Lecture 25 Notes: Aqueous Solutions

Today’s lecture costs 51 minutes. He covers Ksp today.

Solutions are mixes of at least two constituents. A solvent and a solute. Brine is NaCl and H2O. Amalgam of Hg and Ag. Seltzer like CO2 and H2O. Wine is EtOH and H2O.

Metals and a ceramic do not forms good bonds. The dentist would maximize surface area by taking out 75% of the tooth.

nm example
Solution 2nm brine
colloid 2-1000 milk
suspension 1000 blood

Milk has a fatty phase and an aqueous phase. All the minerals are in the aq phase. Different indexes of refraction, refraction at interphase. Milk doesn’t settle. Borosilicate bottle. Cream rises to the top. Homogenized is mixed up.

There’s settling force down, a bouyancy force up. The insoluble cluster. Gravitational force = mass = volume = r3. Interfacial force between solute and solvent. Not strong enough to dissolve it. F=area=r2.

r3>r2 at large R.

Homogenization reduces droplet size.

I2 in CCl4. Water is a polar liquid with H bonding. CCl4 is nonpolar and toxic. Iodine has vdw forces. KMnO4 is ionic as K+ and MnO4-. KMnO4 in water. Like dissolves like.

Competition between what holds a solid together vs what hold the liquid together. Solvation energy versus xtallization energy.

moles solute/liters solvent = molarity = M

0.1 M soluble

EtOH in H2O mixes in all proportions, miscible. Ag in Au, any composition.

AgCl(xtal) = AgCl(aq) = Ag+ + Cl-

left to right is dissolution, R to L is precipitation. Adding AgCl increases conductivity up until saturation.
C sat = 1.5 x 10^-5 M = [Ag+]=[Cl-].
Anything more than that just sinks into the bottom.

Ksp is the solubility product. WHen other solutes are present.

Ksp = Ag+ Cl-

0.1 M Na Cl = 0.1M Na+ + 0.1 M Cl
Ksp = Ag+ Cl0 = (Cagcl)(0.1) = 10^-10

Solubility repression by second solute is the common ion effect. Decrease temperature or add some NaCl.

Arrhenius “Evolution of the Universe.”
Glassy alloys can be both elastic and strong.

pH = pK + log base/acid
y=mx + b
Cuprite CU2O
Chalcocite CU2S
Chalcopyrite CuFeS2
Tenorite CuO
Hematite Fe2O3
Magnetite Fe3O4
Oxidising agents give oxygen to another substance.
Reducing agents remove oxygen from another substance.
Oxidation is loss of hydrogen.
Reduction is gain of hydrogen
MAC glass = mobility arrangement cooling rate
half life of C14 5720 years
IE13 electron acceptor, electrophile, nonmetal.

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