Home > Uncategorized > Introduction to Solid State Chemistry Lecture 27 Notes: OChem

Introduction to Solid State Chemistry Lecture 27 Notes: OChem

Overview
Today’s lecture is 52 minutes. They are having a test soon, the third.

Details
The eye has a bandgap of 2-3 eV. Organic compounds contain C and H. When hydrogen loses its e-, it’s character changes dramatically. Carbon is a small atom that can form many bonds. Silicon and Ge are not small but they do not form double bonds, mostly sp3 hybridization.

-C2H3 is vinyl.

Alkanes are CxH2x+2, alkenes are CxH2x, alkynes are CxH2x-2. Alkanes are saturated and have the maximum number of bonds. Octane is gas. Larger molecules increase polarizability and vdW forces. Branched chains reduce boiling point, has lower VdW forces. Butane was used in lighters. Constitituional isomers have the same moleculear formula but different arrangement.

n-butane versus isobutane. Radicals have one or more unpaired electrons, broken bonds, highly reactive.

Alkenes have cis/trans and E/Z stereo isomers. Two double bonds is a diene, three is a triene.

-CH=CH2 is vinyl

-CH2-CH2-CH2=CH3 is allyl

Aromatic HCs are arenes. 140 pm is the carbon carbon bond length in benzene, bond order 1.5. Conjugated systems alternate between single and doubles bonds; allows electron movment.

CH2=CH2-C6H5 is vinyl benzene or styrene. -C6H5 is phenol. Xylene has two methyl groups on a benzene. BTX = benzene, toluene, xylene is added to jet fuel to increase performance.

If gas was made of straight chain alkanes, it would burn unevenly and knowck. Octane number isooctane versus heptane.

90% isooctane + 10% heptane is octane number 90. Additives increase the octane rating, TEL and Et-OH. Mix in brancheds and cyclics to help the cause. High octane gas burns less well but burns when you want it, not off cue.

Review
Alkalinity = [HCO3-] + 2[CO3−2] + [OH−] − [H+]
pH = pK + log base/acid
y=mx + b
Cuprite CU2O
Chalcocite CU2S
Chalcopyrite CuFe
Tenorite CuO
Hematite Fe2O3
Magnetite Fe3O4
Oxidising agents give oxygen to another substance.
Reducing agents remove oxygen from another substance.
Oxidation is loss of hydrogen.
Reduction is gain of hydrogen
MAC glass = mobility arrangement cooling rate
half life of C14 5720 years
IE13 electron acceptor, electrophile, nonmetal

NOF hydrogen bond acceptor, H hydrogen bond donor

nm example
Solution 2nm brine
colloid 2-1000 milk
suspension 1000 blood

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