Home > Uncategorized > Introduction to Solid State Chemistry Lecture 33 Notes: Unary Phase Diagrams

Introduction to Solid State Chemistry Lecture 33 Notes: Unary Phase Diagrams

Overview
Today’s lecture is 52 minutes long.

Details
Chemistry is about control. How to maintain the advantage.

14.7 psi = 1 atm = 100,000 Pa

Stability and maintaining the solid state. Water cools the block, radiator cools the water. In the radiator, 90 C,

Gas to solid is low heat flux. Liquid to solid is high heat flux.

Phase diagrams are stability maps. Phase is a region of uniform chemical composition. Physically distinct and bounded, mechanically seperable.

2 phase systems are ice cubes in water, milk with fat and water, snowflake obsidian with amorphous and crystalline.

Equilibrium has no net reaction, lowest energy state. Phase diagrams describe systems at EQ.

C/P 1 Phase 2 Phase
1 Comp Water Slush
2 Comp CaO-ZrO2 CCl4 and H2O

Water with a one composition system. L, G, and Solid. P vs T. Triple point. Human experience is at 1 atm. y shaped graph. Liquid/vapor coexistence is boiling point. 2 phase equilibrium. Solid/liquid coexistence is the melting point.

if dP/dt is negative, density of the solid is less than that of the liquid.

77 mass ave is the boiling point of liquid nitrogen, 77K. He goes below the Tg, below the crystallization temperature. He spends about 10 minutes on a demonstration with liquid nitrogen. O2 boils at 90K, Ar at 87K, and N2 at 77K.

Sadoway uses all the PPE jazz. Doesn’t want to get written up in a log and get complaints.

Flourence flasks are round bottomed. Erlenmeyers are flat. Solid O2 is paramagnetic and blue. To make seltzer, use perrier and dry ice.

Cinnabar mines. Mercury fountain. Joan Miro. Very high surface tension. Mercury vapor is toxic.

Allotropes are different forms of the same element: S S2 S8.

Gas molecules will be indistingishable from the liquid phase. Supercritical fluid. Vaporlike chemical properties, liquidlike transport properties. Used in coffee and solvent extraction.

Review
14.7:1 Air/Fuel Mixture
“Money to get power, power to protect money”
Protein Denaturation: pH, heat, redox, detergents
Long Range: gravity, drag, wind
C6H12O6 → 2 C2H5OH+ 2 CO2 + heat
C6H12O6 = 2C2H5OH + 2CO2

Condensation reactions build chains. Dehydration reactions destroy chains. Making bonds releases energy, breaking bonds costs energy.
Colligative properties: vaper pressure depression, melting point depression, boiling point elevation, osmotic pressure.
Cuprite CU2O
C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36 ATP

B electric field strength
H magnetic field strength
E electric displacement field
D magnetic displacement field
A lactone is a cyclic ester
R-(O=S=O)-NH2 is a sulfonamide
Chalcocite CU2S
Chalcopyrite CuFeS2
Tenorite CuO
Hematite Fe2O3
Magnetite Fe3O4

NEIU – novelty, innovative, utility
-CH=CH2 vinyl
i = 1 + a(n-1)
n=number of ions in solution

Tropical Rainforest: floor, understory, canopy, emergent,
aurophillic bond 3A and 10kcal/mole

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