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Human Anatomy: Food Chains

Today’s lecture is on food chains and trophic levels. The cost to you is about an hour.

I found an MIT lecture series on biology. We may be watching this soon:

Trophic means eating. Diatoms are microscopic algae or plankton; they photosynthesize. A food chain describes who eats who. Herbivores are first order consumers. Carnivores are second order consumers. Decomposers feed on nonliving organic matter and include bacteria/fungi.

Nutrients, plants, herbivores, carnivore, decomposers…

Omnivores feed on both plants and animals. Energy pyramids: only about 1/10th the energy is available as we move up levels. Ratfink quotes India “one hill can only support one tiger.”

Factors limiting productivity: Climate; rainfall and sunlight
water, sunlight, temperature, nutrients.

Tropical, temperate, subarctic, arctic zones. From 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south is the tropics.

Spring equinox March 20th. Summer solstace is June 21th. Winter solstace is Dec 21st. September 21st is the Autumn equinox.

Plants need CO2, water and sunlight. Graph of temperature versus rainfall.

Major Biomes include:
Tropical rain forest
Temperature decidious forest.

Conifers are cone bearing trees. Pine, spruce, fur.

Scrub forests in mediterrannean, SoCal, chile, south Africa, SE Australia.

Bioaccumulation is biological magnification. The maximum size of the human population is determined by trophic level. Thus most people in the world will be vegetarians by necessity.


Redfield Ratio C:N:P 106:16:1
E= hf
c = wavelength x freq
CRAVED – conceal, remove, available, valuable, enjoyable, disposable
CARVER – critical, accessible, recoverable, vunerable, effective, recognizable
BLISS blend, low silhoutte, irregular shape, small, secluded

C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36ATP
2C8H20 + 25O2 = 16CO2 + 18H2O

Air = N2, O2, Ar, CO2, Ne
AFR air fuel ratio

Air: Fuel 14.7:1
14.7 lean
The lower the excess air, the richer the flame.
The higher the excess air, the leaner the flame.

Helicopter flight control inputs: cyclic-direction, collective altitude, pedals-nose direction, throttle.

14.7:1 Air/Fuel Mixture
“Money to get power, power to protect money”
Protein Denaturation: pH, heat, redox, detergents
Long Range: gravity, drag, wind
C6H12O6 → 2 C2H5OH+ 2 CO2 + heat
C6H12O6 = 2C2H5OH + 2CO2

Condensation reactions build chains. Dehydration reactions destroy chains. Making bonds releases energy, breaking bonds costs energy.
Colligative properties: vaper pressure depression, melting point depression, boiling point elevation, osmotic pressure.
Cuprite CU2O
C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36 ATP

B electric field strength
H magnetic field strength
E electric displacement field
D magnetic displacement field
A lactone is a cyclic ester
R-(O=S=O)-NH2 is a sulfonamide
Chalcocite CU2S
Chalcopyrite CuFeS2
Tenorite CuO
Hematite Fe2O3
Magnetite Fe3O4

NEIU – novelty, innovative, utility
-CH=CH2 vinyl
i = 1 + a(n-1)
n=number of ions in solution

Tropical Rainforest: floor, understory, canopy, emergent,
aurophillic bond 3A and 10kcal/mole

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