Home > Uncategorized > Human Anatomy: Cytology/Cell Membrane Proteins

Human Anatomy: Cytology/Cell Membrane Proteins

Today we’ll review some cytology. The cost is 40 minutes.

Types of Proteins:
Ion channels are specific for Cl-, K+, Na+, Mg2+

Transport proteins are specific for sugars, AAs. May require ATP.

Enzymes catalyze specific rxns.

Receptor sites are found on the outside surface of the cell membrane. Molecule specific. Activation changes cell activity. This is how cells react only to certain stimuli. Drugs need a receptor site. Anything entering the bloodstream goes everywhere.

Recognition Sites are glycoproteins on the outer surface. Let WBCs recognize you from foreign cells. A close match is needed for organ transplants. Organ transplant rejection is when WBCs attacking your new organ. Immunosuppressive drugs will be given for the rest of the patient’s life. They lower the WBC count. Corticosteroids are used.

Autoimmune diseases are when your immune system attacks you. Rheumatoid arthrisis, rheumatic heart disease, MS. They lack recognition sites.

The cytoplasm is 80% water. It has a consistency of jello. It has a cytoskeleton which allows changes in cell shape. Microfilaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules.

The cell wall is a rigid, porous structure made up of polysaccharides.

The nucleus has a nuclear membrane with pores. Has nucleoplasm with chromosomes and rRNA. The nucleolus contains RNA. Uncoiled DNA is chromatin, coiled DNA is a chromosome.

ER – a tubular network inside the reticulum. SER makes lipids and steroids. RER makes proteins from ribosomes. The golgi apparatus packages and transports the proteins/lipids; the post office of the cell.

Lysosomes are suicide bags. Contain digestive enzymes. They carry out apoptosis. Use with food vaccoules. Vaccoules are amoeba or WBCs that phagocytize an organism.

Octasulfur is S8 in a puckered ring.
Source Holding: search, silence, segregate, speed, safeguard, tag
BLISS – blend in, low, irregular, small, secluded
METT-TC: mission enemy troops terrain time civilians
SALUTE size activity location unit time equipment
Sternum: manubrium, body, xyphoid process (suprasternal/jugular notch)
Stomach: fundis, body, pylori
Small intestine: duodnum, jujunum, ileum
pi donor ligands/weak field ligands/high spin
pi acceptor ligand/strong field ligand/low spin complex
Ambush: category – hasty/deliberate, type – point/area, formation- linear/L shaped.
LACE liquid ammunition casualties equipment
Ag has the highest electrical and thermal conductivity, Ag+
C6H12O6 = 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + 2ATP
Maltose is two glucoses.
Sucrose is glucose and fructose.
Lactose is glucose and galactose.
Fire: O2, fuel, heat, chain reaction
Stomach: fundis, body, pylori
Prisoner Handling: search silence segregate speed safeguard tag
N2 + 3 H2 ⇌ 2 NH3 + 92kJ
Redfield Ratio C:N:P 106:16:1
Air = N2, O2, Ar, CO2, Ne
AFR air fuel ratio
Air: Fuel 14.7:1
14.7 lean
The lower the excess air, the richer the flame.
n-pentane, isopentane, neopentane
C4H9Li + H2O → C4H10 + LiOH
cetane being an old name for hexadecane
alkane – alcohol-aldehyde-COOH
The higher the excess air, the leaner the flame.

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