Home > Uncategorized > Thermodynamics and Kinetics: Part 1

Thermodynamics and Kinetics: Part 1

Overview
We’re going to dump Achem. The teacher is putting me to sleep. Today’s lecture is the introduction and costs 47 minutes.

Details
Each thermodynamic law defines a quantity. Thermodynamics describes the flow of heat.

Temperature is defined by the 0th law. “The common sense law.”
Energy is defined by the 1st law. U. Energy conservation. “Break even law.”
Entropy is defined by the 2nd law. S. Direction of time. “YOu can break even at Ok.”
Numerical Entropy is the 3rd law. “You can’t win law.”

Thermo is a very mature science. You must define your system well. There is the system, the boundary, and the surroundings.

The open system allows mass and energy in. Closed systems allow energy in but no mass. Isolated systems do not allow mass or energy in.

The first step is defining your system. P,T,V, n and mass are the basic variables. They are macroscopic properties. Homogenious or heterogenious. Number of components and phases.

Extensive properties scale with properties of the system – V, mass. Intensive properties include T, V’ = V/n. State variables for a one component systems, we only need the n + 2 variables.

3 H2 (n, 1 bar, 100 degrees C)

Path is the intermediate steps from initial state to final.
4H2 (g, .5bar, 100c) = 4H2 (g, 1 bar, 50C)

Adiabatic – no heat exchange. Irreversible or reversible? Isobaric is constant pressure. Isothermal is constant temperature.

THe Zeroth Law – heat flows from a warm body to the cold body. An object in between will have an intermediate temperature. Defines the concept and measurement of temperature.

2 reference points are needed.

Rankine
Celsius
Fahrenheit – US and Jamaica.

Review
“NAVEL” for Nerve, Artery, Vein, Empty Space and Lymph
Atm: N2, O2, H2O, Ar, CO2, Ne
UV rays: 400-10nm, 3ev-124
10-100 nm is ionizing
Rf = distance component/distance solvent
viscosity – internal friction

The C≡C bond distance of 121 picometers
the C=C distance in alkenes (134 pm)
the C-C bond in alkanes (153 pm).

terminal/internal alkynes

1. Be Offensive
2. Honor Your Professionals
3. Own the Street
4. Know Your History
5. Do Not Ignore Analysis
6. Do Not Be Parochial
7. Train Your People
8. Do Not Be Shoved Aside
9. Do Not Stay Too Long

Resolution = seperation
CH2=CHCH2SCH3 AMS allyl methyl sulfide

Ag has the highest electrical and thermal conductivity, Ag+
C6H12O6 = 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + 2ATP
The stronger the interactions between the polar analyte and the polar stationary phase (relative to the mobile phase) the longer the elution time.
Each eye has six muscles that control its movements: the lateral rectus, the medial rectus, the inferior rectus, the superior rectus, the inferior oblique, and the superior oblique.
4 classes of blood loss
Class I -15% blood volume
Class 2 15-30 tachycardia, pallor
Class 3 30-40
CLass 4 40+ resusictation
Octasulfur is S8 in a puckered ring.
Source Holding: search, silence, segregate, speed, safeguard, tag
BLISS – blend in, low, irregular, small, secluded
METT-TC: mission enemy troops terrain time civilians
SALUTE size activity location unit time equipment
Sternum: manubrium, body, xyphoid process (suprasternal/jugular notch)
Stomach: fundis, body, pylori
Small intestine: duodnum, jujunum, ileum
pi donor ligands/weak field ligands/high spin
pi acceptor ligand/strong field ligand/low spin complex
Ambush: category – hasty/deliberate, type – point/area, formation- linear/L shaped.
LACE liquid ammunition casualties equipment
Ag has the highest electrical and thermal conductivity, Ag+
C6H12O6 = 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + 2ATP
Maltose is two glucoses.
Sucrose is glucose and fructose.
Lactose is glucose and galactose.
Fire: O2, fuel, heat, chain reaction
Stomach: fundis, body, pylori
Prisoner Handling: search silence segregate speed safeguard tag
N2 + 3 H2 ⇌ 2 NH3 + 92kJ
Redfield Ratio C:N:P 106:16:1
Air = N2, O2, Ar, CO2, Ne
AFR air fuel ratio
Air: Fuel 14.7:1
14.7 lean
The lower the excess air, the richer the flame.
n-pentane, isopentane, neopentane
C4H9Li + H2O → C4H10 + LiOH
cetane being an old name for hexadecane
alkane – alcohol-aldehyde-COOH
The higher the excess air, the leaner the flame

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