Home > Uncategorized > Thermodynamics and Kinetics: Part 2

Thermodynamics and Kinetics: Part 2

Overview
Today’s lecture is 51 minutes long. Looks like it was winter when this was filmed. The students are wearing jackets.

Details
The ideal gas thermometer gives us the concept of absolute zero. Based on Boyle’s law: limit as p approaches zero of pV = constant.

p1V1 = p2V2

Boiling pt of water is 100 C and freezing pt of H2O is 0C. We have to connect those two dots. We use a linear interpolation. The x axis is intercepted. There pV=0. Negative pressure and volume “don’t make sense.” -273.15 C. K = C + 273.15

The triple point of H2O is 273.16 K and the pressure where water is in EQ for s, g and l. 6.1 x 10^-3 bar.

Slope = Rise/Run = f(triple point)/273.16 = R
RT = pV/n for an ideal gas
PV = nRT
V = f (n, P, T) is an equation of state

Compressibility factor = Z = PV/RT
Z = V real/V ideal

Virial factor; Taylor expand the fudge factor
PV/RT = Z = 1 + x/Vreal + y/V2real…

Van der Waals equation of state
(P + a/v2)(V-b) = RT
b is the volume per mole of hard spheres
a describes intermolebular attraction
V bar is the probability of interaction

Work = Force x Distace = Fd
Expansion or compression work.
F = P external x Area
W = P ext x area x length
Work on the system is +, work done by the system is –

dw = -p ext dV, p ext is path dependent
functions of state are path independent

Ar (g1, p2, V1) = Ar (g1, p2, V2)
V1>V2
p1 T2
T2 > T1 is positive q
T2 < T1 is negative q

adiabatic means no heat
q depends upon path

Review
Oh my, such great apple pie!" (oxalic, malonic, succinic, glutaric, adipic, pimelic)
Kingdoms of Nature: Plants, Animals, Bacteria, Protists, Monera
Intermolecular Forces: ionic, hydrogen bonding, dipole dipole, VdW
“NAVEL” for Nerve, Artery, Vein, Empty Space and Lymph
Atm: N2, O2, H2O, Ar, CO2, Ne
UV rays: 400-10nm, 3ev-124
10-100 nm is ionizing
Rf = distance component/distance solvent
viscosity – internal friction

The C≡C bond distance of 121 picometers
the C=C distance in alkenes (134 pm)
the C-C bond in alkanes (153 pm).

terminal/internal alkynes

1. Be Offensive
2. Honor Your Professionals
3. Own the Street
4. Know Your History
5. Do Not Ignore Analysis
6. Do Not Be Parochial
7. Train Your People
8. Do Not Be Shoved Aside
9. Do Not Stay Too Long

Resolution = seperation
CH2=CHCH2SCH3 AMS allyl methyl sulfide

Ag has the highest electrical and thermal conductivity, Ag+
C6H12O6 = 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + 2ATP
The stronger the interactions between the polar analyte and the polar stationary phase (relative to the mobile phase) the longer the elution time.
Each eye has six muscles that control its movements: the lateral rectus, the medial rectus, the inferior rectus, the superior rectus, the inferior oblique, and the superior oblique.
4 classes of blood loss
Class I -15% blood volume
Class 2 15-30 tachycardia, pallor
Class 3 30-40
CLass 4 40+ resusictation
Octasulfur is S8 in a puckered ring.
Source Holding: search, silence, segregate, speed, safeguard, tag
BLISS – blend in, low, irregular, small, secluded
METT-TC: mission enemy troops terrain time civilians
SALUTE size activity location unit time equipment
Sternum: manubrium, body, xyphoid process (suprasternal/jugular notch)
Stomach: fundis, body, pylori
Small intestine: duodnum, jujunum, ileum
pi donor ligands/weak field ligands/high spin
pi acceptor ligand/strong field ligand/low spin complex
Ambush: category – hasty/deliberate, type – point/area, formation- linear/L shaped.
LACE liquid ammunition casualties equipment
Ag has the highest electrical and thermal conductivity, Ag+
C6H12O6 = 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + 2ATP
Maltose is two glucoses.
Sucrose is glucose and fructose.
Lactose is glucose and galactose.
Fire: O2, fuel, heat, chain reaction
Stomach: fundis, body, pylori
Prisoner Handling: search silence segregate speed safeguard tag
N2 + 3 H2 ⇌ 2 NH3 + 92kJ
Redfield Ratio C:N:P 106:16:1
Air = N2, O2, Ar, CO2, Ne
AFR air fuel ratio
Air: Fuel 14.7:1
14.7 lean
The lower the excess air, the richer the flame.
n-pentane, isopentane, neopentane
C4H9Li + H2O → C4H10 + LiOH
cetane being an old name for hexadecane
alkane – alcohol-aldehyde-COOH
The higher the excess air, the leaner the flame

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