Home > Uncategorized > Thermodynamics and Kinetics Lecture 4: Ideal and Real Gases

Thermodynamics and Kinetics Lecture 4: Ideal and Real Gases

Overview
Today’s lecture is 55 minutes long.

Details
dU = dQ + dW
For ideal gases, U(t) internal energy is only dependent on temp.
du=Cv dT

Most of the time, we aren’t operating in a constant volume environment. Usually its constant pressure.

H is H(t,p) is enthalpy.
H = U + pV
dH = Qp

dH=(dH/dT)p dT + (dH/dP)T dP
These are slopes with t or p held constant.

The Joule Thompson Experiment gives a meaning to (dH/dP)T. It’s basically two pistons putting together.

LOL he asks for a vote and as per usual, in every class, only a few particpate.

(dH/dT)p = Cp
(dH/dP)T = -Cp uJT
(dT/dP)H is the Joule Thompson Coefficient or uJT

Ideal gases. U(t). The equation of state is pV = nRT. H=U + pV =U(t)+ nRT. uJT = 0.

Real gases. (P + a/v2)(V-b)=RT. (dH/dP)t = b-a/RT. The inversion temperature is T inv = a/Rb. T inv >>300 K.

Cp=Cv + R.

To be reversible, you should be able to reverse the direction of time. JTE is irreversible. Since its well insulated, its adiabatic, Q = 0. The JTE is a constant enthalpy process.

Review
Oh my, such great apple pie!” (oxalic, malonic, succinic, glutaric, adipic, pimelic)
Kingdoms of Nature: Plants, Animals, Bacteria, Protists, Monera
Intermolecular Forces: ionic, hydrogen bonding, dipole dipole, VdW
“NAVEL” for Nerve, Artery, Vein, Empty Space and Lymph
Atm: N2, O2, H2O, Ar, CO2, Ne
UV rays: 400-10nm, 3ev-124
10-100 nm is ionizing
Rf = distance component/distance solvent
viscosity – internal friction

The C≡C bond distance of 121 picometers
the C=C distance in alkenes (134 pm)
the C-C bond in alkanes (153 pm).

terminal/internal alkynes

1. Be Offensive
2. Honor Your Professionals
3. Own the Street
4. Know Your History
5. Do Not Ignore Analysis
6. Do Not Be Parochial
7. Train Your People
8. Do Not Be Shoved Aside
9. Do Not Stay Too Long

Resolution = seperation
CH2=CHCH2SCH3 AMS allyl methyl sulfide

Ag has the highest electrical and thermal conductivity, Ag+
C6H12O6 = 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + 2ATP
The stronger the interactions between the polar analyte and the polar stationary phase (relative to the mobile phase) the longer the elution time.
Each eye has six muscles that control its movements: the lateral rectus, the medial rectus, the inferior rectus, the superior rectus, the inferior oblique, and the superior oblique.
4 classes of blood loss
Class I -15% blood volume
Class 2 15-30 tachycardia, pallor
Class 3 30-40
CLass 4 40+ resusictation
Octasulfur is S8 in a puckered ring.
Source Holding: search, silence, segregate, speed, safeguard, tag
BLISS – blend in, low, irregular, small, secluded
METT-TC: mission enemy troops terrain time civilians
SALUTE size activity location unit time equipment
Sternum: manubrium, body, xyphoid process (suprasternal/jugular notch)
Stomach: fundis, body, pylori
Small intestine: duodnum, jujunum, ileum
pi donor ligands/weak field ligands/high spin
pi acceptor ligand/strong field ligand/low spin complex
Ambush: category – hasty/deliberate, type – point/area, formation- linear/L shaped.
LACE liquid ammunition casualties equipment
Ag has the highest electrical and thermal conductivity, Ag+
C6H12O6 = 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + 2ATP
Maltose is two glucoses.
Sucrose is glucose and fructose.
Lactose is glucose and galactose.
Fire: O2, fuel, heat, chain reaction
Stomach: fundis, body, pylori
Prisoner Handling: search silence segregate speed safeguard tag
N2 + 3 H2 ⇌ 2 NH3 + 92kJ
Redfield Ratio C:N:P 106:16:1
Air = N2, O2, Ar, CO2, Ne
AFR air fuel ratio
Air: Fuel 14.7:1
14.7 lean
The lower the excess air, the richer the flame.
n-pentane, isopentane, neopentane
C4H9Li + H2O → C4H10 + LiOH
cetane being an old name for hexadecane
alkane – alcohol-aldehyde-COOH
The higher the excess air, the leaner the flame
“Evil is a word used by the ignorant and the weak. The dark side is about survival. It’s about unleashing your inner power. It glorifies the strength of the individual.”
There is no peace, there is only passion
Through passion I gain strength,
through strength I gain power,
through power I gain victory,
through victory, my chains are broken
the Force will set me free

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