Home > Uncategorized > Thermodynamics and Kinetics Lecture 8 Notes: Thermochemistry

Thermodynamics and Kinetics Lecture 8 Notes: Thermochemistry

Overview
Today’s lecture is about 50 minutes long.

Details
Making bonds releases energy, breaking bonds costs energies.

CH4 = C + 4H
Make a cycle
Step 1) CH4
2) C + 2H2 = CH4 -dH f, CH4
3) C + 4H
dH3 = dH c + 2dH H2

Ethane is C2H6
C2H6
2C + 3H2
2C + 6H

Knowing bond energies can lead to heats of formation. Break all the bonds then reform them.

n-pentane
C5H12
do the same thing as above

G=H-TS = -RT lnK=-nFE

Clausius
1st law: the energy of the universe is constant.
2nd law: the entropy of the universe
always increases
No cycle is ever 100% efficient.
Path int (dQ rev/T) = 0.

dS = dQ/T

Kelvin: it is impossible to convert heat into work with a system operating in a cycle without transfering some heat to a cold reservoir. You can sometimes eliminate the cold reservoir if you don’t need a cycle.

Review
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures:
P(total air) = P(O 2) + P(N2) + P(CO2) + P(HOH)

760 = 160 + 594.7 + 0.3 +5.0

The color in lipstick comes from Fe 3, Co2, or Ni 2

breaking bonds costs energy, making bonds releases energy.’

Octane ratings decrease with increasing carbon chain length.
Octane ratings increase with carbon chain branching.
Octane ratings increase in aromatics with same number of carbons.

Octane too low, explosion not burning, leading to knocking.

unsaturated fats have kinks and lower melting points. less VdW forces.

AM 530-01700kHz

FM 88-108MHz

2 C8H18 + 25 O2 → 16 CO2 + 18 H2O
Gasoline contains about 35 MJ/L (46.6 MJ/kg, or 9.7 kWh/L, 13 kWh/kg, 132

MJ/US gal, 36.6 kWh/US gal

getting in alot of hands is mentally exhausting

molecular geometry and electon pair geometry. linear, trigonal planar, tetrhedral, trigonal bipyramidal,octahedral.

parafin alkane
olefin aleke
naphthenes (cycloalkanes),

A solute will dissolve in a solvent if the solute-solvent forces of

attraction are great enough to overcome the solute-solute and solvent-

solvent forces of attraction.

Hemoglobin (HHgb) behaves as a weak acid (K = 1.4 x 10-8; pKa = 7.85). Oxyhemoglobin (HHgbO2) also behaves as a weak acid (K = 2.5 x 10-7; pKa = 6.6)
HHgb + O 2 HgbO 2 + H+

paramagnetic, unpaired electrons, reinforces mag fields
diamagnetic, no unpaired electrons, opposes magnetic fields
ferromagnetics keep a mag field when it’s no longer applied. Fe, Gd, Co, Ni.
Above the curie temp, FM is lost.

B = uo H

Oh my, such great apple pie!” (oxalic, malonic, succinic, glutaric, adipic, pimelic)
Kingdoms of Nature: Plants, Animals, Bacteria, Protists, Monera
Intermolecular Forces: ionic, hydrogen bonding, dipole dipole, VdW

Gunpowder: KNO3, wood charcoal, sulfur
“NAVEL” for Nerve, Artery, Vein, Empty Space and Lymph
Atm: N2, O2, H2O, Ar, CO2, Ne
UV rays: 400-10nm, 3ev-124
10-100 nm is ionizing
Rf = distance component/distance solvent
viscosity – internal friction

The C≡C bond distance of 121 picometers
the C=C distance in alkenes (134 pm)
the C-C bond in alkanes (153 pm).

terminal/internal alkynes

1. Be Offensive
2. Honor Your Professionals
3. Own the Street
4. Know Your History
5. Do Not Ignore Analysis
6. Do Not Be Parochial
7. Train Your People
8. Do Not Be Shoved Aside
9. Do Not Stay Too Long

Resolution = seperation
CH2=CHCH2SCH3 AMS allyl methyl sulfide

Ag has the highest electrical and thermal conductivity, Ag+
C6H12O6 = 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + 2ATP
The stronger the interactions between the polar analyte and the polar stationary phase (relative to the mobile phase) the longer the elution time.
Each eye has six muscles that control its movements: the lateral rectus, the medial rectus, the inferior rectus, the superior rectus, the inferior oblique, and the superior oblique.
4 classes of blood loss
Class I -15% blood volume
Class 2 15-30 tachycardia, pallor
Class 3 30-40
CLass 4 40+ resusictation
Octasulfur is S8 in a puckered ring.
Source Holding: search, silence, segregate, speed, safeguard, tag
BLISS – blend in, low, irregular, small, secluded
METT-TC: mission enemy troops terrain time civilians
SALUTE size activity location unit time equipment
Sternum: manubrium, body, xyphoid process (suprasternal/jugular notch)
Stomach: fundis, body, pylori
Small intestine: duodnum, jujunum, ileum
pi donor ligands/weak field ligands/high spin
pi acceptor ligand/strong field ligand/low spin complex
Ambush: category – hasty/deliberate, type – point/area, formation- linear/L shaped.
LACE liquid ammunition casualties equipment
Ag has the highest electrical and thermal conductivity, Ag+
C6H12O6 = 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 + 2ATP
Maltose is two glucoses.
Sucrose is glucose and fructose.
Lactose is glucose and galactose.
Fire: O2, fuel, heat, chain reaction
Stomach: fundis, body, pylori
Prisoner Handling: search silence segregate speed safeguard tag
N2 + 3 H2 ⇌ 2 NH3 + 92kJ
Redfield Ratio C:N:P 106:16:1
Air = N2, O2, Ar, CO2, Ne
AFR air fuel ratio
Air: Fuel 14.7:1
14.7 lean
The lower the excess air, the richer the flame.
n-pentane, isopentane, neopentane
C4H9Li + H2O → C4H10 + LiOH
cetane being an old name for hexadecane
alkane – alcohol-aldehyde-COOH
The higher the excess air, the leaner the flame
“Evil is a word used by the ignorant and the weak. The dark side is about survival. It’s about unleashing your inner power. It glorifies the strength of the individual.”
There is no peace, there is only passion
Through passion I gain strength,
through strength I gain power,
through power I gain victory,
through victory, my chains are broken
the Force will set me free

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