Home > Uncategorized > Thermodynamics and Kinetics Lecture 12 Notes

Thermodynamics and Kinetics Lecture 12 Notes

Today’s lecture is 48 minutes long. Looks like this teacher uses soft drinks.

For spontaneous change, we need dS>0.

The Clausius Inequality
dS > dq/T surr

2H2O2 = 2H2O O
dH = -201 kJ
dS = + 132 J/K

G = H – TS = -RT ln K

Equilibrium under different conditions:
1) An isolated system where q=w=- and dU = 0, dw=0

3H2 +N2 = 2NH3
dH = -92 kJ
dS = -198 J/K

NaCl + H2O = Na+ + Cl- + H2O
dH = + 4 kJ
dS = -45 J/K

Equilibrium is when the forward and reverse rates are equal. No spontaneous changes can occur.

1st law dU = dq + dW
2nd law dS > dq/T surr
dU <TdS – pdV

dU + pdV -TdS < 0
all are state functions.

For an isolated system to react, the entropy must increase.

For constant S and V systems, the equilibrium has the lowest PE available. The entropy of a mixed gas. Maxiimize the number of configurrations.

For constant S and P processes, the equilibrium state is the state with the lowest H.

For systems with T=T surroundings, and constant V, A = U-TS Helmholz free energy

constant T and P, G = U + pv -TS

The higher the iodine number, the more C=C bonds are present in the fat
Schiff Base C=N-R
G = H-TS = -RTlnK = -nFE
A lactone is a cyclic ester
R-(O=S=O)-NH2 is a sulfonamide
The beta lactam ring is a (C=O)NHCH2CH2
Chloramine – NHCl2, NH2Cl, NCl3
Nitroso R-N=O
Nitrous Acid R-O-N=O 3.4
Cyanate H-N=C=O
mEq = AW / (V x 1000)
horizontal/vertical/diagonal spread

30 households per man per hour, 100 men, 1000 houses, 3 hours
shape shine shadow silhoutee
pH = pK + log base/acid

■Stay relaxed
■Weapon moves first
■Accelerate the weapon
■Move towards the target
Acetyl COCH3
Thionyl chloride SOCl2
Barchan Dune 35 degrees down, 15 up
R-N=N-R Azo
Ambush – linear, L, V
C=S Thioketone
H2N(C=O)NH2 Urea
cash-futures = basis
+ basis negative carry
– basis positive carry
4 carbons overwhelm hydrogen bonding

Atmosphere: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionosphere, exosphere

CTLSC 7 12 554

Sextuple Bond: Mo2, W2

Intermolecular Bonding: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, van der Waals

Hydrogen Bonding: FON Cl

Mandatory Refusal – when communications are lost, no one is trusted. A breach is assumed.

Gain Band Width Product = Gain x Bandwidth

CARVER is an acronym that stands for Criticality, Accessibility, Recuperability, Vulnerability, Effect and Recognizability.

Wind Speed Beaufort Category How to Judge the Wind
1-3 mph Light Air Smoke drifts. Wind cannot be felt.
4-7 mph Light Breeze Wind felt on face. Leaves rustle. Weather vanes move.
8-12 mph Gentle Breeze Leaves and twigs in motion. Light flags are extended.
13-18 mph Moderate Breeze Wind raises dust and loose papers. Small branches move. Flags flap.
19-24 mph Fresh Breeze Small trees in leaf sway slightly. Wavelets form on ponds and lakes.
25-31 mph Strong Breeze Large branches move. Telephone lines sing.

Visible Light – 400 to 700 nm

adam boy charles david edward frank george henry ida john kevin lincoln mary nora ocean paul queen robert sam tom union victor william xray young zebra
bull spread buy near, sell far
bear spread sell near, buy farcash – futures = basis

spreads are differences between futures contract months
cashpostive carry
cash>futures negative carry (inverted)
Basis: time space quality

Aromatic: planar, cyclic, Huckels Rule – 4n+2 electrons

Fibrous – sclera, cornea

Sensory – retina

Vascular – choroid, iris, pupil, ciliary body

Kingdoms – monera, protista, fungi, plant, animal

HSbF6 pKa = 25

Electrophiles are positive, nucleophiles are negative

EDTA is a tetraprotic acid.

C-C=O-C Ketone

Ketones containing alkene and alkyne units are often called unsaturated ketones.

Ph2CO Benzophenone

Sunflower 8 benzenes fused together

(H3C)(CO)(CO)(CH3) Diacetyl

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