Home > Uncategorized > Thermodynamics and Kinetics Lecture 20 Notes

Thermodynamics and Kinetics Lecture 20 Notes

Today’s lecture costs 50 minutes.

We begin with a binary system in two phases: a liquid phase on bottom and a gas phase on top. Xa Xb on the bottom, Ya Yb on the top. At EQ, the u needs to be the same.

F = C – P + 2

Ideal solutions. A is volatile, B is solute and nonvolatile.

Plote composiiton versus pressure with temperature fixed. Xb from 0 to 1. At Xb=0, Pa. At Xvb=1, 0. That’s a linear decreasing function.

Pa mixture = Xa P a pure
Raolt’s Law
Ideal solutions have linear slopes.

Colligative properties include vapor pressure depression, boiling point elevation, freezing point depression, and osmotic pressure.

Adding another substance to a pure solvent lowers Vp.

Total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures.
Pt = Pa + Pb
Pb = xb Pb*
Pa = xa Pa*

Bubble line on top, dew line on the bottom.

Decomposition: autolysis and putrification

F = C – p +2
C is the number of componenets
p is the number of phases
F is the degrees of freedom

Gene Flow: founder effect, bottleneck
Fitness = survivability x fecundity
Evolution = mutation, drift, selection, migration, inbreeding
G=H-TS=-RT lnK=-nFE

Intermolecular Forces: ionic, h bonding, dipole dipole, VdW

1st Law: dU = dq + dw
2nd Law: dS= dq/T
3rd Law: At Ok, S=0

The five techniques: wall-standing, hooding, subjection to noise, deprivation of sleep, and deprivation of food and drink

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