Home > Uncategorized > Thermodynamics and Kinetics Lecture 27 Notes: Discrete Energy Levels

Thermodynamics and Kinetics Lecture 27 Notes: Discrete Energy Levels

Overview
Today’s lecture is about 52 minutes long.

Details
We’ll do alot of examples today regarding statistical thermodynamics.

The free expansion of a gas. Divide up the available volume into elements that can contain an atom/molecule. All states have equal energy.
E translational = 0
E system trans = 0
q = V/v = 10^30 = g
Q = q^N/N! = W
g is degeneracy is the same as q

Allowing the expansion, V1 ->V2
ds = k ln (W1-W2)
dS = Nk ln V2/V1

A=-kT ln Q
S=-dA/dT)u,v
dS = Nk(xa ln xa + xb ln xb)

In a liquid, all states are filled. The molecules are touching.
S = k ln W
dS mixture = k ln N!/Na!Nb!
ln N! = N ln N – N

Let us imagine a series of unequal energy states.
A configuration = -kT ln Q
Q = 1+3e^( E in/kT)
N is an energy per molecule

In the limiting case, T approaches zero as Heat Capacity Cv approaches zero. Here kT <>E int.

Review
BRASS breathe relax aim sight shoot
BLISS blend low irregular small secluded
LACE liquid ammo casualties equipment
METTTC mission enemy troops terrain time civilians
SPLC staffing probabilities logistics contingencies

1st Law dU = dQ + dW
2nd Law dS = dQ rev/T
3rd Law OK, s=0

Sensory Layer: fovea, macula, peripheral

Add acid to water, not water to acid

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