Home > Uncategorized > Human Anatomy: Hematology Lecture 1

Human Anatomy: Hematology Lecture 1

Today’s lecture is 55 minutes long.

TBV = 8% x BW in kg
=0.08 x 70 kg = 5.6L

A kilogram of blood is about the same as a liter. Hematocrit is % packed cell volume. Blood is 55% plasma, 45% formed elements. Hematocrit tubes are thin and spun. Anemia is low Hct. Polycythemia is high Hct. Living at higher altitudes can cause polycythemia.

Plasma Volume = 55% x BL = 0.55*5.6L = 2.9L

Sometimes whole blood is given, or plasma, or formed elements. Blood plasma is 90% H2o with some proteins at 7%, 7g/100mL. Most are made in the liver and secreted into the bloodstream. Plasma proteins are seperated by electrophoresis.

-phoresis is “to seperate.”
-emia means “in the blood.”

The heavier elements are pulled down. Plasma on top, a middle layer of platelets and WBCs, and RBCs on bottom.

Blood contains RBCs, WBCs and platelets. 3 million RBCs. 7000 WBCs.

Negative charges inside the cell come from proteins. They are attracted to + charges. Low molecular weight proteins move the fastest in gel electrophoresis.

Most blood proteins are albumin, 60%. They maintain plasma volume by osmotically drawing water into the bloodstream. Globulins are 35%. Alpha and beta globulins carry lipids and some minerals through the blood. HDL and LDL are alpha globulins and transport cholesterol. LDL deposits cholesterol into the blood, HDL takes it from the blood. LDL production is genetic.

Transferin transports iron, its a beta globulin. Gamma or immunogloblins or antibodies are made by B lymphocytes. Most antibodies are IGGs and attack bacteria/viruses. Fewest antibodies are IGEs for allergies.

Platelets are made in the liver. Cell fragments. Serum is plasma – clotting factors. Hemophilliacs can’t make platelets. Heparing prevents blood clots.

Normal blood glucose levels are 100 mg/dL. Cholesterol is less than 200 mg?dL. BUN and NH3 from AA breakdown. Uric acid comes from nucleotide breakdown. Creatnine is a waste product from muscles.

Na+ is 150 mEq/L. K+ is 5 mEq/L. H2CO3 is the major extracellular buffur. H3PO4 is the major intercellular fluid.

Plasma is water with proteins at 7%. 60% of that is albumin, 35% is alpha and beta globulin.

Formed elements, most are RBCs 5 million/mm3. WBCs are 7K/mm3.

RBCs are very small. Antigens on the surface are ABO and Rh antigens. They only live for 4 months. They have no nucleus. They carry no genetic information and cannot self repair. Made in the ribs, vertebral column and the sternum.

Yellow marrow doesn’t produce RBCs. Red marrow is red and still makes RBCs.

There is an A protein and a B protein. Type O is neither. Then there is the Rh MHC marker. 85% of people are Rh+. Type O Rh- make antibodies against Rh, A and B. Type AB Rh+ is the universal recipient. It is possible for a mother’s immune system to attack a baby with the wrong markers – Rh imcompatability.

Intermolecular Forces: ionic, hydrogen bonding, dipole dipole, VdW

cationic electrophile, anionic nucleophile

The Y factor is log (k/ko) = mY where ko is a standard of 80% ethanol in H2O.

Dialectric constant less than 15, nonpolar

Good leaving groups are weak bases

Basic conditions, 2 and 3o alkyl halides
Acidic conditions, 2 and 3o alcohols

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