Home > Uncategorized > Human Anatomy: Hematology Lecture 3

Human Anatomy: Hematology Lecture 3

Overview
Today’s lecture is 46 minutes long.

Details
Lymphocytes make up 25% of all WBCs. B lymphocytes originate in the embryo in the bone marrow. Make immuniglobulins against bacteria.

T lymphocytes originate in the thymus. LCs multiply in the lymphatic organs like tonsils, appendix. The thymus is between the thyroid and the heart in children. It degenerates beginning at puberty. T LCs are helper T cells/CD4/T4 cells. Cytotoxic T cells/CD8/killers.

Helper T’s release interferon that interferes with viral replication. Release cytokines that activate B lymphocytes and cytotoxic T cells. HIV/AIDS destroy helper T cells.

CD8 cells release perforin which causes foreign cells to rupture.

Lymphocytopemia is low LC count. Lymphocytosis is high, usually from virus or bacterial infection.

B LCs make antiBodies.

BLOOD TESTS
Numbers are set up to either be in range or out of range. Glucose should be around 100 mg/dL. Bun is blood urea nitrogen; urea is a waste product from AA breakdown. If higher than normal, kidney failure is probable. Creatnine is a muscle waste product.

ALT is a liver enzyme. Total biliruben from breakdown of RBCs. Calcuim is important for blood clotting and muscle contractions. 150 mEQ/mL is normal Na value, 5 for K. Uric acid is from the breakdown of nucleotides. Cholesterol should be less than 200.

Total protein should be 7%. Albumin creases a Colloid Osmotic Pressure, COP. HGB should be around 15%, it is hemoglobin. HCT is hematocrit and should be 45%. A differential WBC counts monocytes, basophils, and so on. A cytologist does this.

It is usual to have several pathologies at once.

Review
Intermolecular Forces: ionic, h bonding, dipole dipole, VdW

High T, higher basicity and more steric hinderance favor E vs SN rxns.

Nucleophiles are anions, electrophiles are cations

Better leaving groups are weak bases/stronger bases.

SN2 intermediate is trigonal bipyramidal, SN1 intermediate is trigonal planer

SN2 is an interchange rxn, SN1 is a dissociative rxn

SLLS stop look listen smell

625/50 is PAL. 525/30 is NTSC.

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