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Introduction to Human Anatomy Lecture 41: Solutions and Concentrations

September 11, 2012 Leave a comment

Overview

New mini-series here for us; 6 parts on solutions.  Today’s lecture is free but for 39 minutes of your time.  The endpoint that we work towards is a discussion on blood as a solution.

Details

A solution is made of a liquid and the solute, what is dissolved.  Concentration specifies solution in a volume of liquid.

Grams of solute: mL of liquid

1:1000 adrenaline.  Given for hypersensitivity reaction like anaphylactic shock.  Found in any hospital or dental office.

1 gram epinephrine/1000 mL = 0.1 g/100 mL = 0.01 gram/10 mL

Propofol is used of IV anesthesia.  Use a syringe to withdraw the liquid through the rubber top.

1:50 xylocaine = 1 gram lidocaine/50 ml

The standard is 1.8 mL.

50x = 2 mL

x = 2/50 = 0.04 g = 40 mg

Hypodermic cartridge or carpule is a vial-like thing.  These are just placed in syringes and ejected.

Hydromorphone is a narcotic drug.  Pentanyl citrate is as well.

Similar with saline.  1:100 = 1 gram NaCl/100 mL.

Percent Concentration

% = grams/100 mL

100 mL = 0.1 L = 1 dL

3% saline = 3 grams NaCl /100 mL

Betadine is an antiseptic.  1% = 1 gram iodine/100 mL.

5% dextrose (d5w) and .45% NaCl.  Contains 1000 mL.

Dextrose is d-glucose.  l-glucose is levulose.

5 grams d-glucose/100 mL H2O

Exposing cells to a hypertonic solution will desiccate them and cause them to collapse.  Hypotonic will cause cells to explode and take in water.

Ampules are one time use containers; the glass top is broken off.  Sodium bicarbonate is a buffer.

7.5 % = 7.5 g/100 mL = 0.075 grams/1 mL

0.1% adrenaline is a standard solution.

Normal blood concentration is 7% of 7 grams protein for 100 mL.

100 mg %.  100 mg glucose per 100 mL.  100 mg/dl = 100 mg/100 mL = 100 mg%.

Normal concentration of cholesterol should be less than 200 mg %.

Sometimes, we speak of gases, not solutes.  Use mL %.

Normal oxygen in arterial blood is 20 mL % = 20 mL O2/100 mL blood

Review

solid, latent heat of melting, liquid, latent heat of vaporization, gas

Honey bee/Apis mellifera: queens, workers, and drones

cis: upper/upper, lower/lower

Trans: upper/lower, lower/upper

Flipping a ring make the equitorial axial and vise versa

Alkane 153 pm, Alkene 134 pm, Alkyne 121 pm

G = H – TS

Alkane 153 pm, Alkene 134 pm, Alkyne 121 pm

Alpha particles have 2 protons and 2 neutrons.  They approximate a naked Helium nucleus

Beta particles can be absorbed by 1 cm of skin or 10 feet of air

Typical chemical bond – 400 J/mol

Alpha emitters: radon, radium, polonium

Equitorial methyl + 1.74 kJ/mol = Axial methyl

LN (X/Xo) = -k (t-to) k = 0.693/half life

Therapeutic Index = LD/ED

the larger the claws the less they sting, the smaller the claws the more they sting

Tissues: epithelial, muscular, nervous, connective

PV = nRT

pKas: alkane 50, alkene 43, hydrogen 42, amine 38, amide 35, sulfoxide 31, alkyne 25, alcohol 17, water 15.7, thiol 13, phenol/ammonium 10, Benzoic acid 4.2, HF 3.2, H3O+ -1.7, H2SO4 -3, HCl -6, HBr -9, HI -10

Intermolecular Forces: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, london dispersion

Alpha emitters – radon, radium, polonium

OODA observation orientation decision action

Bonds: ionic >1.9, polar covalent in between, covalent <0.5
Forces: electrostatic, h bonding, dipole dipole, VdW
From staggered to eclipsed, 2.9kJ/mol

 

Electronegativity: F 4, N 3.5, O3, Cl 3

PH = pK + log [base/acid]    HKBA
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Introduction to Chemical Engineering: Lecture 1

Overview

No – this is not our next lecture series.  We are waiting a few days to start posting our new physics series.  It is easy to get out of the habit of doing this.  Thus, I’ve chosen a series I found.  Follow if you wish, or just read the notes. 

This lecture is from Stanford.  Here is a 48 minute lecture on Chemical Engineering.  Some students have taken this course 4 times to get through.  Nice to have a white man teaching here.  This is the teacher’s final semester before retirement.  There are 8 problem sets, a midterm and a final.  This took place in 2008. 

Overview

Chemical engineers open at an average of 59K per year.  He shows a picture of an oilwell from Titasville, Pennsylvania in 1859.  Chemical engineers originated to take oil and refine it into useful liquids and gases. 

Boiling oil produces fractionation, or differentiation of products.  Any hydrocarbon above heptane becomes a liquid, the earlier hydrocarbons are all gasses.  Refineries make heating oil in the summer, for winter.  Then they make gas in the winter, for the summer driving season.  It’s all about money. 

Converting raw materials into valuable products.  Most refineries process 100K to 250K barrels of oil per day.  Pipelines carry products to the business of use.  Jet fuel is essentially kerosene.  Monomers are small molecules that can make larger molecules.  Like ethylene into polyethylene, can make poly vinyl chloride, teflon. 

Intel hires more chemical engineers than electrical engineers.  Intel takes silicon to make pure silicon crystals to make transistors and so on.  Inorganic materials are made into ceramics.  Glucose into pharmecuticals.  Protecting and improving the environment. 

The teacher spent his career making diagnostic devices.  He made a pregnancy detector.  You’re going to hear alot of stories about his early career.  It’s crazy stuff. 

input-output = accumulation

This class is built around conservation principles.  Conservation of mass, volume, etc. 

Review

Germ layers: ectoderm/mesoderm/endoderm

Extraembryological layers: Amnion, Yolk Sac, Allantois, Chorion

Types of tissue repair: fibrosis, regeneration

  Levels of theory: atom, molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population

   Muscle: skeletal, smooth, cardiac

   PV = nRT

  Fibrous eye layer: sclera, cornea

   Vascular eye layer: pupil, iris, ciliary body, choroid  

 Sensory: retina  

Interior layers of the eye: retina, choroid, sclera  

 Brain layers: DAP dia mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater  

 conjectiva – highly vascular, thin layer, mucus membrane  

Edge of objects, light intensity and contrast are affected by horizonal and amacrine cells.

Fast pain from myleinated fibers, slow pain from unmylienated fibers

Cell to Cell Communication from short distance to longest: autocrine, juxtacrine, paracrine, endocrine.  

 Tissues: epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous

  G = H-TS  

 K = products/reactants  

Brain: diencephalon, brainstem, cerebrum, cerebellum  

 Merkel discs – pressure, light touch

  Two cells that improve contrast, edges and light intensity are amacrine and horizontal cells.  

Taste buds from cranial nerve 9, 10,7.

Biology 1a Lecture 39 Notes

Overview

Today is a monster review at 85 minutes long.  Looks like the class is nearly over.  I see alot of new faces in this class; seems that students  show up at test time.  Here in the US you can always tell when there is a test – everyone is early to class, studying hard.  The hall resembles a refugee camp.

Review

Cell movement: cilia, microvilli, flagella

Interior layers of the eye: retina, choroid, sclera

Brain layers: DAP dia mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

conjectiva – highly vascular, thin layer, mucus membrane

Edge of objects, light intensity and contrast are affected by horizonal and amacrine cells.

Fast pain from myleinated fibers, slow pain from unmylienated fibers

Cell to Cell Communication from short distance to longest: autocrine, juxtacrine, paracrine, endocrine.

Tissues: epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous

G = H-TS

Limbic system: hippocampus, amgdala, hypothalamus

K = products/reactants

Brain: diencephalon, brainstem, cerebrum, cerebellum

Merkel discs – pressure, light touch

Two cells that improve contrast, edges and light intensity are amacrine and horizontal cells.

Taste buds from cranial nerve 9, 10,7.

Cellular structure: microtubules, intermediate filaments, microfilaments

Germ layers: ectoderm/mesoderm/endoderm

Extraembryological layers: Amnion, Yolk Sac, Allantois, Chorion

Types of tissue repair: fibrosis, regeneration

Levels of theory: atom, molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population

Muscle: skeletal, smooth, cardiac

PV = nRT

Fibrous eye layer: sclera, cornea

Vascular eye layer: pupil, iris, ciliary body, choroid

Sensory: retina

Biology 1a Lecture 38 Notes

Overview

Today is a 45 minute lecture on cell disfunction.  I see this class has a million different people in charge of different things.  One guy in charge of tests, one of homework.

You’ll be playing the secretary today.  Tons of jargon.  What a nightmare.  It’s no fun trying to retype every word coming out of his mouth.  He can talk faster than you can type.

Details

Kidneys and Tonicity

Interstitial fluid has a gradiant.  Blood in is 300 milliosmolar.  150 mM salt is the concentration of blood.  150 mM of NaCl is 300 mOsmolar.  Interstitial fluid is 1200 mOsmolar.  The filtrate is in equalibrium with the interstitial fluid.  Interstitial fluid has a concentration gradient.  The kidneys get about 25% of the blood, from Mariam class.

From 300 to 1200 mOsmolar.  The descending limb is water permeable, not to NaCl.  The ascending limb brings out NaCl.  Gradient forms as filtrate passes.  The collecting duct excretes water and urea to stabilize content.  Urine is then very concentrated.  The blood coming in was 300 osmolar.  This allows us to survive with less water.

High blood osmolality of salt.  Hypothalamus senses this using osmoreceptors.  Get thirsty, drink water.

Hypothalamus secretes ADH or anti diuretic hormone.  Goes to the posterior pituitary.  ADH binds to collecting duct receptors.  Water permeability increases.

Reduce blood pressure/volume.  Juxtaglomuloar apparatus near the affarent arteriole.  Makes a protease called renin.  Has a substrate called angiotensinogen.  A -gen is an inactive precursor.  Makes angiotensin one which is 10 AA.  Produces an enzyme making angiotensin two which is 8 AA.

Adrenal cortex makes steroids.  Makes aldosterone.  Murnpalocartiocoids.  The receptors are in the distal and proximal tubules.  Volume increased.

Do you remember tonicity?  Isotonic, hypertonic and hypotonic?  It’s about the movement of water in or out of the cell.  Hyper is water out.  Hyper mean water comes in.

Review

Cell movement: cilia, microvilli, flagella

Cellular structure: microtubules, intermediate filaments, microfilaments

Germ layers: ectoderm/mesoderm/endoderm

Extraembryological layers: Amnion, Yolk Sac, Allantois, Chorion

Types of tissue repair: fibrosis, regeneration

Levels of theory: atom, molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population

Muscle: skeletal, smooth, cardiac

PV = nRT

Fibrous eye layer: sclera, cornea

Vascular eye layer: pupil, iris, ciliary body, choroid

Sensory: retina

Interior layers of the eye: retina, choroid, sclera

Brain layers: DAP dia mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

conjectiva – highly vascular, thin layer, mucus membrane

Edge of objects, light intensity and contrast are affected by horizonal and amacrine cells.

Fast pain from myleinated fibers, slow pain from unmylienated fibers

Cell to Cell Communication from short distance to longest: autocrine, juxtacrine, paracrine, endocrine.

Tissues: epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous

G = H-TS

K = products/reactants

Brain: diencephalon, brainstem, cerebrum, cerebellum

Merkel discs – pressure, light touch

Two cells that improve contrast, edges and light intensity are amacrine and horizontal cells.

Taste buds from cranial nerve 9, 10,7.

Biology 1a Lecture 37 Notes

April 29, 2012 1 comment

Overview

Today is a 50 minute lecture on the lungs.  Beware!  This guy is a banger and the information comes fast and furious.

Notes

Gas Exchange

The alveoli have lung capillaries where oxygen comes in, carbon dioxide goes out.  Tissue capillaries carbon dioxide in, oxygen out.  Pressure gradient works from high to low.

At sea level, air pressure is 760 mm Hg with 21% oxygen.  In the alveoli, pO2 is 104, pCO2 is 40.  Coming in is pO2 40mm and pCO2 45 mm.  Oxygen moves in quickly, carbon dioxide moves out slowly.

Oxygen rich blood has pO2 104 mm, pCO2 40mm.  Tissue capillaries is pCO2 45mm and pO2 40mm.  Oxygen moves out, carbon dioxide moves in.

RBCs have hemoglobin binds oxygen using iron.  Hemoglobin has 4 subunits, oxygen comes in and the conformation changes.  Affinity for oxygen increases and 3 more oxygen molecules come in.  This is “positive cooperativity.”

The release of oxygen is due to partial pressure gradients.  Lower pO2, release.  The lungs have resting pO2 of 100, the tissues has 40mm.  There is a curve of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin versus partial pressure of oxygen.

The Bohr shift is when the curve shifts as the pH of the blood lowers to 7.2.  This occurs during deep oxygen debt from exercise.

Oxygen is moved in a complex with hemoglobin.  CO2 hits carbonic anhydrase and makes H2CO3.  Usually exists as HCO3- or bicarbonate.  The H+ contributes to the Bohr effect.

Excretory System

Blood enters the capillaries.   These capillaries are picky or selectively permeable to water and small molecules.  The output is filtrate.  The goal is to output concentrated urine.  We’d like to reabsorb water and not lose anything.

The structural and functional unit of the kidney is the nephron and the collecting duct.  The capillaries are the glomular capillaries.  Bowman’s capsule goes in.  Secrete NH3+, excrete HCO3-.  Proximal and distal tubules.  Loop of Henley has the descending and ascending limb.

Boy.  I hate when teachers try to “run” by going faster as the clock goes on.  Spend some time.  Or else let things go.  You can’t rush or mass produce people.

Review

Germ layers: ectoderm/mesoderm/endoderm

Extraembryological layers: Amnion, Yolk Sac, Allantois, Chorion

Types of tissue repair: fibrosis, regeneration

Levels of theory: atom, molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population

Muscle: skeletal, smooth, cardiac

PV = nRT

Fibrous eye layer: sclera, cornea

Vascular eye layer: pupil, iris, ciliary body, choroid

Sensory: retina

Interior layers of the eye: retina, choroid, sclera

Brain layers: DAP dia mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

conjectiva – highly vascular, thin layer, mucus membrane

Edge of objects, light intensity and contrast are affected by horizonal and amacrine cells.

Fast pain from myleinated fibers, slow pain from unmylienated fibers

 

Biology 1a Lecture 35

April 28, 2012 4 comments

Overview

Today is a 50 minute lecture on the circulatory and respiratory system.  They really try to hit everything a little bit in this class.  It’s like a sampling of all of biology.  This class is probably a one semester class for non-specialists.

Details

We need to eat to prevent entropy.  We also need essential amino acids and essential fatty acids.  The metabolic reaction again is C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6H2O + 6CO2 + 36 ATP

Adipocytes make leptin.   Stimulates neurons, increases activity and decrease in appetite.  Leptin resistance goes along with insulin resistance.  Obese mice given leptin making normal sized mice.  Humans are more complicated.

Metabolism is ingestion, hydrolysis (breaking covalent bonds to make water), absorption, excretion.

The digestive system is also known as the alimentary canal.  Sphincters separate different regions.  The initial region needs low pH to digest.  The next region needs neutral pH to absorb.

Alot of digestion occurs in the mouth.  Chewing tags enzymes to substrates.  Amylase breaks polysaccharides into disaccharides.  Mucin provides buffering and lube.  Then food passes through the phayrnx and esophagus into the food bolus.  Food bolus stimulates secretion of more enzymes.

Food plus enzymes and acids equals chyme.  Proteases break down proteins, nucleases break down nucleic acids, amylase breaks down saccarides and so on.

Pepsin is a protease cleaves almost anything.  Made as a precursor called pepsinogen by chief cells.  Often a large inactive molecule becomes a smaller active molecule.  Parietal cells in the stomach with HCL, a strong acid makes pepsin more active.  Pepsin is designed for a low pH.

Dwadnum?  Noooooo – it’s the duo den um.  Our man here is no anatomist.

The liver makes bile which goes to the gall bladder which also makes bile.  Bile helps deal with digesting fat.

The pancreas makes the sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3).  The pancreas also makes protease, trypsinogen which makes trypsin, nucleases

Absorption comes from columnar epithelial cells in the villi.  They have a special structure called microvilli on a apical or free side.  The invaginations increase surface area.  More nutrients are taken in.  Microvilli in the small intestine are also called the brush border.

He makes a half hearted attempt to cover the circulatory system.  I’m not going to dignify that crap.  You wanna cover something, do it.  Might take more than 30 seconds and one sentance.

Review

Types of tissue repair: fibrosis, regeneration

Levels of theory: atom, molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population

Muscle: skeletal, smooth, cardiac

PV = nRT

Fibrous eye layer: sclera, cornea

Vascular eye layer: pupil, iris, ciliary body, choroid

Sensory: retina

Interior layers of the eye: retina, choroid, sclera

Brain layers: DAP dia mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

conjectiva – highly vascular, thin layer, mucus membrane

Edge of objects, light intensity and contrast are affected by horizonal and amacrine cells.

Fast pain from myleinated fibers, slow pain from unmylienated fibers

Biology 1a Lecture 33 Notes

April 26, 2012 1 comment

Overview

Today is a 50 minute lecture on development.  It’s a bit lighter on the jargon than recent lectures have been.

Details

Low and high estrogen is individual.  At low estrogen, negative feedback.  At high estrogen, positive feedback which makes more LH creates ovulation.

Zygote cleaves to morulla compacts to blastocyst.  The trophoblast is the yolk, the epiblast and hypoblast for the fetus.

Oxytocin created in posterior pituitary gland.  Some oxytocin goes to the placenta which makes pristaglandins.

Stem Cells

Undifferentiated cells can undergo self renewal, differentiation into a type of tissue or cell.  Everyone has stem cells, some more than others.

Totipotent – Differentiate into any type of cell.  From the zygote or 8 cell morula.

Pluripotent – Differentiate into most tissue types.  AKA embryonic stem cells or ESCs.  From the inner cell mass of blastocysts, or embryonic germ cells.  Or, embryonomic carcinomic cells, or fetal gonadal tumors.

Made using IVF.  Make blastocyst, take some cells out of ICM>

Multipotent – Restricted differentiatoon.  Most adult stem cells.  Bone marrow is like this.

Unipotent – Only one cell type is possible.

Somatic Cells Nuclear Transfer  – this is done in primates for now.  Begin with a primary oocyte.  Rip out the nucleus, give it a diploid nucleus from a somatic cell, you can get stem cells out of this.

Anueuploidy is the wrong number of chromosomes.

Frog Development

Frog eggs have an animal and vegetive hemisphere (yolk).  There is a heterogenous distribution, everything is alway in the same location so each cell has a different differentiation potential by direction.

Frog eggs on the yolk side are heavier.  That side floats downward.  Fertilization occurs in the animal hemisphere.  A wave of calcium arrives on the membrane helmet or cortex.  The outer shell moves toward the area of fertilization.  The grey cresent is a loss of pigmented area.  The grey cresent sets up the dorsal polarity, where the back is.  Events during development include: Cleavage, Fertilization, Gastulation and Organogenesis.

Review

Tissues: epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous

Cell mobility – cilia, flagella, microvilli

Neural divergence is extensive in the SNS and minimal in the PNS.

Adrenal medulla is made up of postganglionic sympathetic nerve.

Autonomic nervous system has effects that are glands, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle.

Limbic system is concerned with emotion, olfaction and learning.

The hypothalamus controls the ANS and the endocrine system

gray communicating ramus: unmylinated, postganglionic, sympathetic

Alpha and beta andregenic receptors bind norepinephrine

Adrenals are made up of an outer cortex and an inner medulla

SNS arises from the thoracic and lumbar sections

PNS arises from the brainstem and saccral regions

Brainstem: midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata

Cones see color, rods see dark

Tunics of the eye: fibrous, vascular, sensory

Fibrous eye layer: sclera, cornea

Vascular eye layer: pupil, iris, ciliary body, choroid

Sensory: retina

Interior layers of the eye: retina, choroid, sclera

Brain layers: DAP dia mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater

conjectiva – highly vascular, thin layer, mucus membrane

Edge of objects, light intensity and contrast are affected by horizonal and amacrine cells.

Fast pain from myleinated fibers, slow pain from unmylienated fibers

Cell to Cell Communication from short distance to longest: autocrine, juxtacrine, paracrine, endocrine.

Tissues: epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous

Levels of theory: atom, molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population

Muscle: skeletal, smooth, cardiac

PV = nRT

G = H-TS

K = products/reactants

Brain: diencephalon, brainstem, cerebrum, cerebellum

Merkel discs – pressure, light touch

Two cells that improve contrast, edges and light intensity are amacrine and horizontal cells.

Taste buds from cranial nerve 9, 10,7.