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Human Anatomy: Homostatic Reflexes

Overview
Today’s lecture is relatively short at 29 minutes.

Details
Homeostasis is the maintenence of a constant internal environment.

A learned reflex is bladder control.

Negative feedback opposes the input signal. Positive feedback reinforces the input signal.

A stimulus is a stress.

Effects do the change. Muscular organs contract; glands secrete chemicals.

Homeostasis refers to attempts of the body to maintain a constant internal environment. There are innate and learned homeostatic reflexes. A well known HSR is bowel/urinary control.

When normal ranges are exceeded, something is wronge (perhaps). O2, blood sugar, blood pressure, temperature are examples.

Negative feedback opposes the input signal. Positive feedback reinforces the input.

Receptors tend to be sensory neurons.

Stimulus – Receptors – Afferent Path – Control Center – Efferent Pathway – Effectors

A comes before E. First comes the input, then comes the output. Effectors are muscular organs that contract, and glands that secrete chemicals. The brain controls the other effectors.

Control centers compare the input value with the ideal value. When they differ, effectors are called into play. The nervous and endocrine systems control all the other systems.

Sensory neurons go in and are also called affarent pathways. Motor neurons go out and are efferent pathways. A comes before E.

Affectors can either contract or secrete. The muscular system contracts, the gland system secretes chemicals.

Stephen Hawking has a degenerative neural condition. In time, there will be no contact with effectors.

Neural reflexes are controlled by the brain. Hormonal reflexes are controlled by the endocrine glands. Neuroendocrine use both, as in water balance.

Review
Alpha cells – glucagon
Beta cells – insulin

Intermolecular Forces: ionic, h bond, dipole dipole, VdW

OAKOC obstacles and fields of fire, avenues of approach, key terrain, obstacles, cover and concealment

disguise, surveil, detect

IMAO improvise, modify, adapt, overcome

P tot = EPx

PNP EBC
NPN CBE

7K grains/lb

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Human Anatomy Lecture 5: Large Intestine

Overview
Today’s lecture costs 54 minutes. This one will conclude our series on

the digestive system.

Details
The lamina propria has both blood capillaries and lymph vessels. Non fats

tend to be water soluble. They are taken by the hepatic portal vein to

the liver, where nutriets are processed and stored. Lipids are paired

with albumin and go into general circulation then back into the liver.

Disorders of the SI include enteritis, duodenal ulcers (caused by

bacteria),

Stomach and intestine doctors are gastroentrologists.

The larger intestine has a larger bore than the SI. It is 4 feet long.

The appendix guards its entrace for bacteria.

Cecum, ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid, rectum, anus. This is

the order from beginning to end.

The first bend is the hepatic flexure or the right colic. Then the second

bend is the splenic flexure or left colic.

The LI has sacculations called hosstra. It stores water and bacterial

digestion of remaining chyme in food residue. Cellulose or fiber,

Lower GI series is done by enema and by drinking some barium, then x

raying. UTIs in women are caused by E Coli.

The appendix is a 3.5 inch tonsil off the abdomen. Appendicitis leads to

appendectomy. This usually occurs in early to late teens.

There is an internal involuntary sphincter (visceral smooth muscle) and an

outer, voluntary one (skeletal muscle).

Diarrhea and constipation are opposites. One is increases peristaltic

contractions leading to loose watery stool. The other is reduced

peristaltic contraction leading to hard dry stool.

Prunes are dry plums, apricots are dried peaches.

Diverticulitis are bulging weak spots in the intestine. This is caused by

a lack of fiber. Even smooth muscle needs to be challenged, like skeletal

muscle.

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Human Anatomy Lecture 4: Small Intestine

Overview
Today’s lecture is 54 minutes long.

Details
The SI is 20 feet. The mesentary is the membrane connecting the greater curvature with the SI.

The duodnum is 10″ and C shaped. It is followed by the jujunum and the

ilium. The SI lining has villi which are finger like extensions. Simple

columnar epithelilial cells have a brush border with microvilli. The lumen is the opening. There are also some mucus secreting goblet cells.

The stomach is not designed for absorbtion as it does not have extensive folding with villi.

Serosa, muscularis, submucosa, inner mucosa going in.

Viceral peritnium is on the outside of the SI. The serosa is the outermost layer with loose CT/areolar CT. The muscularis has visceral smooth muscle, 2 layers: longitudinal and circular. Long outer, circular inner.

The submucosa is loose CT and has lymph nodules (lymphocytes and

macrophages). The mucosa is heavily folded with villi. Intestinal glands
secrete enzymes into the lumen.

The muscularis mucosa moves the villi. Fatty acids are absorbed by the lymphatic vessels.

The pancrease is both an endocrine and an exocrine gland. The gallbladder is green like an avocado. The liver makes green bile. The common hepatic bile duct takes bile out of the liver.

The liver has a right and a left lobe. Bile is green soap. Detergent allows fat to dissolve in water. An emulsifier.

Billi ruben is green. The sphincter of Odi lets bile into the duodnum.

Bile backs up into the GB where it accumulates.

The common hepatic duct and the cyctic duct of the GB combine into the
common bile ducts into the SO Odi.

Pancreatic juice contains NaHCO3 to reduce acidity. Amylase, trypsin,

lipases and nucleases. Intestinal juice has maltase, sucrase, lactase.

maltose = glucose + glucose
sucrose = glucose + fructose
lactose = glucose + galactose

Many will lose the ability to digest dairy when they age. Peptidases

concert peptides into AAs.

Sugars and AAs are actively transported across the mucosal lining.

Review
kidney, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra
serosa, muscularis, submucosa, mucosa
Run-3+ same suit in order
Set-3+ same value different suit

PAG2
PTC1
23
search silence segregate speed safeguard tag

travelling, travelling overwatch, bounding overwatch

Contingencies: GOTWA going others time what actions

OAKOC observation and fields of fire, avenues of approach, cover and

concealment, obstacles, key terrain

6 Warfighting functions: fire support, movement and maneuver, protection,

command and control, intel, sustainment

Fire support: PLOT CR purpose location observer trigger communication

method resources

Fire: heat O2 chain rxn fuel

m:n=n/(m+n)

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Human Anatomy: Digestive System 3 – The Stomach

Overview
Today’s lecture is the usual, 45 minutes.

Details
The esophaagus runs from C6 to T10, a 10 inch long muscular tube. The top of the heart is at T2. The spine is a yardstick.

The abdominal cavity can be divided into 4 quadrants. There are many ducts between the liver, gallbladder and stomach. Exocrine glands excrete chemicals into ducts.

The cardiac sphincter is the gastro esophageal sphincter. The ridges are called ruga. The less omentum goes from the lesser curvature to the liver. The stomach is a muscular sac that holds food. It acts as a buffer. Ground up food with gastric juice is chyme. HCl kills bacteria, pepsinogen is the inactive form of the enzyme pepsin. Chief cells make pepsinogen. Protein is converted to peptide chains by pepsin.

Substances absorbed across the stomach are water, monosaccharides, OH, aspirin. Stomach content is cleared in 1-4 hours. Aspirin irritates the stomach and has been replaced by Tylenol which is absorbed across the SI.

GERD gastro esophegeal relux disorder.

An ulcer is a sore. Gasteric ulcers are caused by bacteria, Heliobacter pylori. Tetracyclin is prescribed. Any gas evolved beyond the pyloric sphinctor go out the anus.

Stomach cancer can lead to stomach removal. There is no buffer and they can only eat very little at a time.

1/200 births for males has phyloric stenosis. 1/1000 live births for women. “Failure to thrive” is a baby losing weight.

Vomiting is the heaves. Val Salva manuver is increasing intra abdominal pressure to expel.

Muscularus, mucosa, submucosa are layers of the SI…

Review
Teeth: crown, neck, root/enamel, dentin, pulp

Kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra
Stomach: fundis, body, pylori
Sternum: manubrium, body, xiphoid process

Pair into set 8:1 or 12%
2 Suited into OESD 10%
2 suited into flush 11%

PAG2
PTC1
23
search silence segregate speed safeguard tag

travelling, travelling overwatch, bounding overwatch

Contingencies: GOTWA going others time what actions

OAKOC observation and fields of fire, avenues of approach, cover and concealment, obstacles, key terrain

6 Warfighting functions: fire support, movement and maneuver, protection, command and control, intel, sustainment

Fire support: PLOT CR purpose location observer trigger communication method resources

ACP NRR abduction captivity, proof of life negotiation ransom drop release

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Ezra Pound

Ezra Pound

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Here is a link to an audio recording of one of the great American poet, Ezra Pound’s radio broadcasts that he did from fascist Italy in support of fascism and for which he was imprisoned in a mental institution by a vengeful American government after the war.  Click on the title to be taken to the link.  Also, there is a link to Pound’s readings of his own poems.  I highly recomemend Canto XLV.

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A Voice From The Past

A Voice From The Past

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I just stumbled upon this Wally Butterworth archive.  It is dated but interesting from a historical perspective. Click on the title to be taken to the archive.